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Comparative Grammar Method as a way of Foreign Languages mastering after the example of Russian and English
Ибрагимов Г.Х. Санкт-Петербург


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RUSSIAN LANGUAGE. CLASSIC EDUCATION.

The way to simultaneous translation

When the computer making more than sixty years ago the American scientists couldn’t clarify themselves what basic principle is to be laid of computer’s operating until they accidentally found out the Binary Numbers Formula at the British King Library. That Formula was deduced as far back as the middle of the XIX century by the English mathematician and is successfully used as any modern computer basic working principle up to nowadays not depending on its complication’s degree.

The realization of Foreign Languages learning by Comparative Grammar Method is based on the original Grammar ‘formula’ (but given notion is more inherent in mathematics, physics, chemistry and so on) of ‘Generalized Conclusion’ (introduced in the file of ‘Preface’) that is simultaneously as any language grammar focus and guide to action when the sentences composing to express the finished thought. There is used the analytic way when English sentences considering too because teaching process foresees translation your speech from English into Russian only. The reverse action such as translation from Russian into English goes without saying independently.

The ‘Generalized Conclusion’ is obtained by the detailed consideration of English verb signs as a kernel of any language.

The verb signs in combination with independent parts of speech cases relations introduce the Grammar part of ‘Morphology’ but the words order in the sentence and each part of sentence expression way introduce the Grammar part of ‘Syntax’. The ‘Generalized Conclusion’ separate position is filled in by the Grammar rules (‘Real Russian’ Manual and CDMethodical Instructions’).

Our speech is the thought’s engine and Oral speech is one of the engine’s element which we use from our childhood. It is brought to automatism by many years cultivated practice that is principally used as basic way when any foreign language learning.

The Writing speech is the second element of the thought’s engine. Writing speech level increasing up to Oral one is the main catalyst to apprehend both native and foreign language grammar structure as a whole unit but taking into account some structural differences between them. Especially it’s concerned the English and Russian independent parts of speech conjugation/declension meanings Ratio. That Grammar part mastering is one of the first and important task.

Then time periods of the notion ‘brought to automatism by many years cultivated practice’ declines into ten times, thought’s engine operates without misfires. It’s worked out the steady ability of independent progress in learning language with permanent simultaneous perfection of native one because what level of our Mother tongue perfection is, as far as we can simply express our thoughts through the sentences composing we shall not gain higher level in the foreign language perfection. And word usage through the sentences composing is the main source of our own vocabulary replenishment. Even the word like some raw food is subjected to ‘treatment’ that is to grammatical agreement for adding a definite sense to the being expressed thought.

The educational material is the following:

  1. Printed 196 pages volume ‘Real Russian’ Manual (see attached files of ‘Real Russian Manual. Table of Contents’ and ‘Real Russian Manual. Fragments’)

  2. Printed 149 pages volume APPENDIX to ‘Real Russian’ Manual containing CDMethodical Instructions’ Table of Contents; CDEnglish-Russian Dictionary’ Paginal Words Address; ‘Touch Typing Method’ (see attached file of ‘Preface’)

  3. Printed 84 pages volume APPENDIX of ‘Verbs, Nouns and Adjectives Synonyms Paginal Words Address’

  4. Recorded on CD 4,028 pages volume ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and 560 pages volume ‘Methodical Instructions’.

The newfinalvariant of the educational material is the following:

  1. Printed 196 pages volume ‘Real Russian’ Manual (see attached file of ‘Real Russian Manual. Fragments’)

  2. A4 format 16 pages volume printed ‘ENGLISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY USING INSTRUCTIONS’. Each sheet is laminated and they are fastened together by a limpid band as a whole unit.

  3. A4 format 4 pages volume printed Preface. Analysng Guide. CD MethodicalInstructionsTableof Contents’. Each sheet is laminated and they are fastened together by a limpid band as a whole unit.

  4. A4 format 2 pages volume printed THE GENERALIZED CONCLUSION (one side). PARENTHETICAL WORDS’ (another side). A sheet is laminated too.

  5. A4 format 4 pages volume printed APPENDIX of the CDEnglish-Russian DictionaryPAGINAL WORDS ADDRESS. Table of Contents. APPENDIX of the CDVerbs, Nouns&AdjectivesSynonyms Paginal Words Address. Table of Contents’. Each sheet is laminated and they are fastened together by a limpid band as a whole unit.

  6. A4 format 6 pages volume printed ‘TOUCH TYPING METHOD’. Each sheet is laminated and they are fastened together by a limpid band as a whole unit.

  7. Recorded on CD 4,028 pages volume ‘English-Russian Dictionary’; 560 pages volume ‘Methodical Instructions’; 143 pages volume ‘English-Russian Dictionary Paginal Words Address’; 79 pages volume ‘Verbs, Nouns & Adjectives Synonyms Paginal Words Address

So we have only 16 laminated sheets containing all inquiry information and occupying far less room on the table but this variant is much comfortable for using and effective relative to minimum searching time without prejudice to quality

English-Russian Dictionary’ contains 7,600 entries in all and among them are the following: 1,315 verbs; 3,401 nouns; 2,450 adjectives and enough quantity of other Russian parts of speech. In addition many English verbs, nouns and adjectives have but a synonym that in its turn broadens Dictionary’s possibility when a concrete Grammar task solving. Each Russian word meaning has marked out stressed vowel by red.

Moreover each Russian Participle meaning has its own suffix marked out by greenbold print though many Russian verbs can have up to 135 being declined Participle meanings from an action’s name.

It has to do with Adjectives’ comparative and superlative degree meanings too.

The Reflexive verbs have corresponding endings marked out by violetbold print. Short Participles and Adjectives meanings have marked out Gender and Plural endings. There are at most foreseen the conditions for qualitative perception both separate taken Russian word and word combination including the whole sentence where not all words contain stressed vowel marked by red but only the words in accordance with intonation of sought for sentence (see attached ‘Real Russian Manual. Fragments’ file).

Also in ‘English-Russian Dictionary‘ are introduced the reading rules that are inherent in concrete Russian part of speech and English-speaking learner won’t have to apply to US Congress Library to find out the conjugation/declension meanings of any Russian word because he/she has vast information to solve the concrete Grammar task. Any entry searching time takes not more 30 seconds (see attached ‘Preface’ file).

According to the given variants of ‘Table of Contents’ you can make sure about Russian Grammar richness of content (see corresponding attached files).

There are published more than 500 kinds of various Dictionaries in the world concerning to the various parts of labour activity. If being suggested you ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ is concerned to the Common purpose Dictionary then not bringing in any structural changing into its construction and using rules but in general having changed the vocabulary of independent parts of speech such as: verbs, nouns and adjectives as a result we can get another Dictionary concerning to the concrete way of labour activity, f.e.: policy, medicine, economic, building and so on.

From the first steps each learner begins simultaneously to master six pages volume ‘Touch Typing Method’ to type further his/her translation through computer using both English print and Russian one.

At last I think each Teacher is sure to be able to teach both some Foreign Language and his/her native one.

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. КЛАССИЧЕСКОЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Путь в синхронный перевод

При создании компьютера в сороковых годах прошлого столетия американские учёные долго не могли определиться с базовым принципом его работы, пока случайно не обнаружили в Британской библиотеке выведенную ещё в середине XIX века английским математиком формулы двоичных чисел, которая успешно используется как базовый принцип работы любого современного компьютера независимо от степени его сложности.

Реализация изучения иностранных языков методом сравнительной грамматики базируется на впервые применённом ‘Обобщённом выводе’ (представлен отдельным файлом), своеобразной грамматической ‘формулы’ (данный термин больше присущ математике, физике, химии и др.), являющейся одновременно средоточием грамматики любого языка и руководством к действию при составлении предложений для выражения законченной мысли с использованием аналитического подхода при рассмотрении русских предложений, т.к. процесс обучения принципиально построен только на переводе всего и вся с родного языка на изучаемый, что находит практическое подтверждение в Пособии ‘RealRussian’ по изучению русского языка для англоязычных методом сравнительной грамматики, являющимся зеркальным отражением Пособия ‘Грамматическое единство’.

Обобщённый вывод’ получен путём детального рассмотрения признаков английского глагола как ядра любого языка и в сочетании с падежными отношениями самостоятельных частей речи представляют раздел грамматики ‘Морфология’, а порядок слов в предложении и способы выражения каждого его члена представляют раздел грамматики ‘Синтаксис’, а отдельные позиции ‘Обобщённого вывода’ наполнены грамматическими правилами.

Устная речь (один из элементов двигателя мысли) – это многолетняя, доведённая до автоматизма, наработаннаяпрактика, котораяпринята за основу при изучении иностранных языков на современном этапе и растянутая по времени на долгие годы (детский сад, школа, институт и …???).

Письменная речь (второй из элементов двигателя мысли). Повышение уровня письма до уровня устной речи является главным катализатором процесса восприятия грамматики как родного, так и иностранного языка как единое целое с учётом некоторых структурных различий между ними, а временные параметры понятия (многолетняя) ‘доведённая до автоматизма,

наработаннаяпрактика’ сокращаются в десятки раз, двигатель мысли работает без перебоев, вырабатывается устойчивая способность самостоятельного прогресса в изучаемом языке с постоянным одновременным совершенствованием познания родного языка, т.к. на каком уровне познания родного языка мы находимся, насколько мы свободны в выражении наших мыслей через составление предложений, более высокого уровня в познании иностранного языка мы не достигнем. А словоупотребление через составление предложений является основным источником пополнения словарного запаса у каждого из нас, ведь слово, подобно какому-либо сырому продукту, подлежит ‘обработке’, т.е. согласованию для придания определённого смысла высказываемому.

Пособие ‘Грамматическое единство’ и Приложение к нему ‘Методические указания’ не содержат никаких упражнений, вся самостоятельно формируемая учащимся речь переводится с русского языка на изучаемый английский от начала и до конца в соответствии с требованиями английской грамматики (всё это аналогично и для англоязычных учащихся), что позволяет в самом начале занятий самому учащемуся сориентироваться в выборе содержательной части высказываемого по своему усмотрению (в выбранном направлении его активной трудовой деятельности). Всему этому будет способствовать отличное ориентирование в Словарях, будь то общего назначения, по экономике, строительству, транспорту, медицине и т.д.

В процессе обучения учащийся много пишет и с первых минут также осваивает ‘Машинопись. Слепой метод’ с помощью четырёхстраничной инструкции на двух языках (шестистраничная инструкция ‘TouchTypingMethod’ для англоязычных учащихся), чтобы впоследствии оформлять свои переводы через компьютер, по мере накопления материала распечатывать на принтере для хранения в папке с файлами, контролировать свой прогресс, вырабатывать умение находить свои собственные ошибки.

Кроме подробно изложенного грамматического материала в ‘Грамматическом единстве’ и ‘Методических указаниях’ дополнительный, удобный в обращении и занимающий минимум места на рабочем столе справочный материал представлен в виде ламинированных листов следующего содержания:

Обобщённый вывод’, ‘Вводные слова’ (1 лист)

Оглавление ‘Грамматического единства’ (1 лист)

Оглавление ‘Методических указаний’, ‘Основные предлоги управления падежами в английском языке’ (8 листов)

Английские приставки и суффиксы, Таблица неправильных глаголов, Словарь бытового содержания’ (11 листов)

Английские личные имена’ (3 листа)

Машинопись. Слепой метод’ (2 листа)

Это не какие-то надуманные излишества, этот обширный справочный материал всегда находится на расстоянии вытянутой руки и способствует быстрому решению конкретной задачи. Постепенно с приобретением практических навыков учащийся всё реже и реже обращается в собственное ‘Справочное бюро’, вырабатывается автоматизм при решении конкретных грамматических задач по формированию своей устной и письменной речи.

Изложенный в ‘Грамматическом единстве’ и в ‘Методических указаниях’ материал доступен самой широкой аудитории: как приступающим к изучению английского языка школьникам, так и школьникам старших классов, учащимся ПТУ, студентам, аспирантам очной и заочной формы обучения. Даже в случае, когда кто-либо изучал ранее английский язык, он/она начинают обучение с нуля, довольно быстро определяя ‘слабые (или недостающие) звенья‘ и уделяя этим пробелам повышенное внимание с целью достижения конечного результата – усвоения грамматики русского и английского языка как единое целое.

Также имеются практически апробированные наработки по обучению английскому (и соответственно русскому) языку детей с 4,5 лет до поступления в школу непосредственно их родителями, многие из которых, имея высшее образование, не могут помочь своим детям в элементарных вещах, а ведь родители находятся в контакте с детьми практически круглые сутки.

Если обладателю этих американских документов пришлось пройти многолетний путь самообразования после окончания Курсов иностранных языков в Петербурге и Москве (5 лет непрерывной учёбы к 52-летнему возрасту), то русскоязычному студенту, изучающему английский язык методом сравнительной грамматики и получившему хорошую всестороннюю базовую подготовку в течение только одного учебного года (144 астрономических часа), не составит большого труда самостоятельно сдать своего рода ‘выпускные экзамены’ на получение водительских прав в США, Англии и других англоязычных странах, быстро и безболезненно адаптироваться в англоязычной среде, использовать свои знания в нужном ему направлении.

Как подтверждение правильно выбранного пути по изучению иностранных языков методом сравнительной грамматики на базе ‘Обобщённого вывода’ (по-английски ‘GeneralizedConclusion’, представлен в прикреплённом файле ‘Preface’) составлено печатное Пособие ‘Real Russian’ по изучению русского языка для англоязычных, также имеющего в своём составе записанные на CDThe Methodical Instructions’ (‘Методические указания’) объёмом в 560 страниц, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ (Англо-русский словарь) объёмом в 4028 страниц (7600 входящих значений: 1315 глаголов, 3401 существительное, 2450 прилагательных) и достаточное количество других частей речи. Кроме того, многие английские глаголы, существительные и прилагательные, имеют не по одному синониму, что в свою очередь расширяет возможности Словаря, в котором каждое значение русского слова имеет выделенную красным цветом ударную гласную, каждое причастие (у большинства глаголов мы имеем 135 склоняемых значений от одного названия действия) имеет выделенный зелёнымжирным цветом суффикс (также относится к значениям сравнительной и превосходной степени прилагательных), возвратные глаголы имеют выделенные фиолетовымжирным цветом соответствующие окончания, выделены родовые и множественного числа окончания кратких причастий и прилагательных, т.е. максимально предусмотрены условия для качественного восприятия как отдельно взятого русского слова, так и словосочетания, а в итоге – целого предложения, в котором уже не все слова содержат выделенную красным цветом ударную гласную, а только слова в соответствии с интонацией искомого предложения (см. файл ‘RealRussianManual. Fragments’).

В ‘MethodicalInsеructions’ представлены правила чтения, присущие той или иной русской части речи и англоязычному учащемуся не придётся обращаться в Библиотеку Конгресса США для поиска значения спряжения/склонения какого-либо слова, он имеет обширную информацию для решения грамматических задач, а сам поиск любого входящего в ‘English-RussianDictionary’ слова занимает не более 30 секунд (см. краткую инструкцию в файле ‘Preface’).

В мире издаётся более 500 видов Словарей, относящихся к различным видам активной трудовой деятельности. Если предлагаемый Вашему вниманию ‘English-RussianDictionary’ относится к Словарю общего назначения, то, не внося структурных изменений в построение и правил пользования, а только изменив, в основном, словарный состав самостоятельных частей речи, как то: глаголов, существительных и прилагательных, мы можем получить в итоге любой Словарь конкретного направления активной трудовой деятельности, например: политика, медицина, строительство и т.д., ведь структура предложения независима от его содержания, а хорошая грамматическая база позволит каждому применить знания в выбранном направлении активной трудовой деятельности, будь то техническое или гуманитарное.

Процесс обучения англоязычных русскому языку аналогичен выше представленному для русскоязычных учащихся при изучении английского языка.

Открывается доступ к созданию такого рода Пособий для изучения иностранных языков методом сравнительной грамматики на базе ‘Обобщённого вывода’ (в каждом языке имеющего своё название) в качестве доказательства общности грамматических структур существующих на Земле языков как средства общения.

Резюме на английском языке относительно изучения русского языка методом сравнительной грамматики представлено в файлах ‘RealRussianManualTableofContents’, ‘RealRussianManual. Fragments’, ‘Preface’, ‘Verbs, Nouns and Adjectives Synonyms Paginal Words Address’.

И конечно, любой преподаватель иностранного языка должен обязательно работать в двух направлениях, т.е., если он/она преподаёт английский для русскоязычных, будь любезен/любезна преподать русский язык для англоязычных, а преимущественное право на оценку представленного грамматического материала предоставлено только учащемуся.

Выделенное на стр.4 упоминание об обучении детей (русскоязычных – английскому, англоязычных – русскому) непосредственно их родителями предусматривает предварительную, примерно 20 астрономических часов, подготовку родителей, если они изучали английский хотя бы в школе, какой-либо другой иностранный язык или не изучали никакой. В дальнейшем родители становятся хорошими преподавателями для своих детей, укрепляется взаимопонимание, исключается необходимость приглашения со стороны гувернанток, различных тьюторов и т.д. Всё это имеет документальное подтверждение.

Спасибо за внимание и время.

Real Russian’ Manual

Table of Contents

Attention: the same English Grammar notion location is given in the round brackets

INTRODUCTORY COURSE

3

The Brief of English Grammar Structure

(3 – 23)

‘The Generalized Conclusion’

12

Russian Phonetics

23 – 30

Morphology: Parts of Speech

 

Noun

(3); 31 – 34

Adjective

(3 – 4); 34 – 39

Numeral

(4 – 5); 39 – 44

Pronoun

(5 – 6); 44 – 51

Adverb

(8 – 9); 51 – 52

Preposition

(9); 52 – 54

Conjunction

(9 – 10); 54 – 55

Particle

(10); 55 – 57

Practical Analysed English Instances

(13 – 23)

GENERAL COURSE

57

Verb

(6 – 8); 57 – 65

Present Participle Active

65 – 66

Present Participle Passive

66 – 68

Past Participle Active Imperfect

68 – 69

Past Participle Active Perfect

69 – 74

Past Participle Passive

74 – 80

Past Participle Passive Short Form

80 – 82

Some distinctions between Participles and Adjectives

82 – 91

Imperfect and Perfect Adverbial Participles

91 – 96

The Russian Syntax

96

Word combinations and their kinds

97 – 99

Sentence. A Simple one.

99 – 100

Present, Past and Future Tense Active

100 – 107

Present, Past and Future Tense Passive (‘by a Single Verb’)

107 – 111

Present, Past and Future Tense Passive (‘by a Past Passive Participle’)

111 – 112

Interrogative Sentences

(12 – 13) 112

General Questions

112 – 115

Special Questions

115 – 117

Alternative Questions

117 – 118

Disjunctive Questions

118 – 119

Think Questions

119 – 124

Stylistics

124 – 127

Imperative Mood

127 – 128

Russian Adverbial Participle Construction

128 – 131

Russian Participial Construction

131

Attributive Expressions

131 – 133

Modal Verbs

(8) 133 – 137

Conditional Mood of Real Condition

137 – 139

Conditional Mood of Unreal Condition

139 – 144

Russian Impersonal Sentence

144 – 147

Practical Part

147

Indicative Mood

147- 151

Modal Verbs

151 – 153

English Perfect Tenses and Russian equivalents

153 – 157

English Sequence of Tenses and Russian equivalents

157 – 159

Subjunctive Mood

159 – 171

Suppositional Mood

171 – 182

Literary Fragment

182 – 187

Russian Names

187 – 188

Dialogue

188 – 196

Attention: please, take into account the ‘Real Russian’ Manual and given Fragments pages numeration corresponding. Sorry but if your computer isn‘t supplied by IPA Plus print then instead of transcriptions’ signs will be printed any English letter.

Pages 1 24(123)

Pages 57 65 (24 - 32)

Pages 152 161 (32 - 42)

Pages 190 193 (4244)

THE INTRODUCTORY COURSE

Dear Ladies and Gentlemen!

It’s thought that any foreign language knowledge will allow you to get and transfer some extra information through radio, TV, printed editions and personal contacts. But when you begin to study foreign language you’ll have to come across the studying foreign language’s Grammar structure. First of all everyone must ask herself/himself how everyone uses her/his mother tongue. ’The speech is thethought’s engine’ and it’s divided into ORAL and WRITING. Everyone can make sure independently what a precipice runs between the skill of writing and the skill of speaking and reading.

Any Grammar as such it is even one would think of exotic languages like Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew and so on has the same structure and gives us the words changing rules meaning of not any concrete words but the words without any concrete in general. The Grammar gives us sentences composing rules meaning not any concrete sentences, for example, concrete subject, predicate, object etc. but any sentences irrespective of concrete form of one or another sentence. That’s why abstracting from particular and concrete both in the words and in the sentences the Grammar takes all ’Common’ what’s the basis of words and word combinations changing in the sentence and the Grammar builds in accordance with above mentioned its Grammar rules and Grammar laws therefore the better we know our mother tongue Grammar the better we’ll know of learning one. Russian and English Grammar structures have a lot of general positions therefore it’s easier to remember your mother tongue Grammar structure and then to study the existing distinctions between of both mentioned ones. That way of foreign language studying is called as “The Comparative Grammar Method”.

Above given definition is general for English and Russian Grammar. Every language has its own history and every language is based on one of two principles by its origin: historical like English language and orthographical like Russian one.

You know the English language structure hasn’t been changing for more five centuries and owing to the historical reasons the English language has become as the international one. Even in 1888 in London it had to work out and take the IPA(International Phonetic Alphabet) what is used hitherto. The IPA(so called ’transcription’) using allows us to read and pronounce the English words correctly. There are the definite reading rules in English and the various letter combinations are read according to their demands.

Let’s introduce “The Brief of English GrammarStructure” where are given all parts of speech short description:

THE ENGLISH ALPHABET

Aa

/ ei /

Nn

/ en /

Bb

/ bi: /

Oo

/ Wu /

Cc

/ si: /

Pp

/ pi: /

Dd

/ di: /

Qq

/ kju: /

Ee

/ i: /

Rr

/ A: /

Ff

/ ef /

Ss

/ es /

Gg

/ dJi: /

Tt

/ ti: /

Hh

/ eitS /

Uu

/ ju: /

Ii

/ ai /

Vv

/ vi: /

Jj

/ dJei /

Ww

/ dUblju: /

Kk

/ kei /

Xx

/ eks /

Ll

/ el /

Yy

/ wai /

Mm

/ em /

Zz

/ zed /

THE INDEPENDENT PARTS OF SPEECH

THE NOUN

The noun designates the object and answers to the questions of ’Who­?’ or ’What?’. By their meaning the nouns divided into PROPER(’Australia’, ’The New-York Times’, ’James’, ’Mary’ etc.), COMMON(’sport’, text-book’, window’, ’forest’ etc.), COUNTABLE(’horse’, ’man’, ’girl’, ’fox’, ’fish’ etc.), INANIMATE(’building’, country’ newspaer’, Thames’ etc., COUNTABLE(’pen’, ’cup’, ’door’, ’car’ etc., UNCOUNTABLE(’money’, ’coffee’, ’bread’, ’milk’ etc,. The nouns are changed by numbers: Singular(’finger’, ’apple’, ’cover’, ’watch’ etc,); Plural(’fingers’, ’apples’, ’covers’, ’watches’ etc,. The noun has a gender masculine, feminine and neuter.

The English noun has by itself the particular determinant so called ’article’ what is ’indefinite(a / an)’ and ’definite( the )’. The meanings of the articles aren’t concrete and they are abstract but the articles serve as an important factor for establishment of the mutual understanding between the speakers. It ought to remember that the speaker uses the articles not for himself but for interlocutor.

THE ADJECTIVE

The adjective designates the various object’s or person’s signs and answers to the questions of ’What?’, ’Whose?’. The adjectives are divided into QUALITATIVE, RELATIVE and POSSESSIVE.

The qualitative adjectives designate the objet’s sign by the following indications

Form(’straight’, ’angular’, ’wry’, ’round’ etc.)

Size(’tight’, ’low’, ’huge’, ’large’ etc.)

Colour(’red’, ’citric’, ’purple’ etc. )

Property(’solid’, ’viscous’, ’fragile’, etc.)

Taste(’bitter’, ’salty’, ’sour’, ’tasty’ etc.)

Weight(’heavy’, ’weighty’, ’imponderable’ etc.)

Smell(’fragrant’, ’luscious’, ’odorous’ etc.)

Tenperature(’warm’, ’fresh’, ’hot’ etc. )

Sound(’loud’, ’quiet’ etc.)

Common estimation(’important’, ’harmful’, ’useful’ etc.)

F,e, ’bitter saltycucumba’;’warmsunnyday’;’redroundweightybox’ and so on. The object or person can be presented by the countless quantity of the various qualitative signs.

The qualitative adjectives have comparative and superlative degreesed of comparision

  1. easy(positive degree) – easier(comparative degree) – theeasiest(superlative degree)’

  2. fast(positive degree) – faster(comparative degree) – thefastest(superlative degree)’

  3. important(positive degree) – moreimportant(comparative degree) – themostimportant(superlative degree)’

The comparison’s degreeses can have both a simple form(’a’ and ’b’ examples are formed by the suffixes) and compound one(’c’ example consists of two words).

The relative adjectives designate such sign what can not be in the obect at more or less degree

Stuff(’woodenspoon’, ’calypipe’ etc.)

The whereabouts(’riverport’, ’Londoncitizen’ etc.)

Time(’Januaryfrosts’, ’lastyearplan’ etc.)

Purpose(’washermachine’, ’passangertrain’ etc.)

Weight, length, measure(’ametrestick’, ’monthlyreserve’ etc.)

The possessive adjectives designate the possession of smth. To a person or to an animal

bear’sden’, ’deer’santlers’, ’Michael’scar’ etc.

THE NUMERAL

The numerals designate the object’s quantity, number and the objects´order by counting. They are divided into cardinal(answer to the questions of ’howmany?; howmuch?’) and ordinal(answer to the question of ’what?’. Depending of the quantity of forming words the numerals are divided into simple(consists of word) and complex(consists of two or more words)

Cardinal numbers

Ordinal numbers

1 – one

1st – the first

2 – twp

2nd – the second

3 – three

3rd – the third

4 – four

4th – the fourth

5 – five

5th – the fifth

6 – six

6th – the sixth

7 – seven

7th – the seventh

8 – eight

8th – the eighth

9 – nine

9th – the ninth

10 – ten

10th – the tenth

11 – eleven

11th – the eleventh

12 – twelve

12th – the twelfth

13 – thirteen

13th – the thirteenth

14 – fourteen

14th – the fourteenth

15 – fifteen

15th – the fifteenth

16 – sixteen

16th – the sixteenth

17 – seventeen

17th – the seventeenth

18 – eighteen

18th – the eighteenth

19 – nineteen

19th – the nineteenth

20 – twenty

20th – the twentieth

21 – twenty-one

21st – the twenty-first

22 – twenty-two

22nd – the twenty-second

23 – twenty-three

23rd – the twenty-third

30 – thirty

30th – the thirtieth

40 – forty

40th – the fortieth

50 – fifty

50th – the fiftieth

60 – sixty

60th – the sixtieth

70 – seventy

70th – the seventieth

80 – eighty

80th – the eightieth

90 – ninety

90th – the ninetieth

100 - a/one hundred

100th – a/one hundredth

1,000 – a/one thousand

1,000th – a/one thousandth

10,000 – ten thousand

10,000th – ten thousandth

100,000 – a/one hundred thousand

100,000th – a/one hundred thousandth

1,000,000 – a/one million

1,000,000th – a/one millionth

Cardinal simple ’one, twoseventeenahundred…’ etc.

Cardinal complex ’forty-six’, ’fifty-nine’, ’two thousand and eight’ etc.

Ordinal simple ’the first’, ’the ninth’, ’the twentieth’ etc.

Ordinal complex ’the thirty-second’, ’the hundred and sixty-third’ etc.

Fractional numerals

a vulgar(arithmetical) fraction ’1/2 – a half’; ’4/7 – four/seventh’ etc.

decimal fraction ’0.12’; ’2.41’; ’15.37’ etc.

Collective numerals

both, two, threesevennine, ten;a dozen;a halfdozen/halfa dozen;twodozen;score;threescoreyearsandten;agross’

THE PRONOUN

The pronoun points to the objects, their various signs and quantities only but names nothing. Thus it’s used instead of nouns, adjectives and numerals. As the nouns, adjectives and numerals have their own signs the pronouns divided into 10 ranks according to their meanings

1. The Personal Pronouns

Singular

Plural

I – me

we – us

you – you

you – you

he – his; she – her

they - them

it - it

 

2. The Possessive Pronouns

Singular

Plural

I – my – mine

we – our – ours

you – you – yours

you – your – yours

he – his; she – her – hers

they – their - theirs

it – its – its

 

3. The Reflexive Pronouns

Singular

Plural

I – my – myself

we – our – ourselves

you – you – yourself

you – your – yourselves

he – his; she – her – herself

they – their - themselves

it – its – itself

 

4. The Demonstrative Pronouns

Singular

Plural

this

these

that

those

5. The Relative Pronouns

who(whom);what;whose;which;howmany;howmuch’

6. The Indefinite Pronouns

one, some, any, someone, anyone, somebody, anybody, something, anything, all’

7. The Attributive Pronouns

some, any, every, everyone, everybody, everything, other(pl - others), other’s, others’, different, another’

8. The Negative Pronouns

no, anybody, anyone, anything, none, nothing’

9. The Reciprocal Pronouns

each - other’;’each - another’

10. The Interrogative Pronouns

who?(whom?)’; ’what?’; ’which?’; ’whose?’; ’howmany?’; ’how much?’; ’afew(alittle)’

It’s difficult to envelop at once to the above given 10 pronouns’ ranks therefore according to the pronoun’s definition(’…points to the objects, their various signs and quantities only but names nothing’). Let‘s generalize above mentioned in the following way

The pronouns pointing to the object(person)

I – me – myself; you – you – yourself; he – him – himself; she – her – herself; it – it – itself; we – us – ourselves; you – you – yourselves; they – them – themselves; who(whom); somebody(someone); anybody(anyone); someone; nobody

Eachother;eachanother

This – these; that – those

The pronouns pointing to the object’s(person’s) signs

What;some

Whose;somebody’s = someone’s, anyone’s

My(mine); your(yours); his(his); her(hers); its(its); our(ours); yours(yours); their(theirs)

Which

Some, acertain

Such;such(any)(the same); any;every;different(other)

No

Not one

Nobody’s = noone

The pronouns pointing to the number

How many

How much

Few, little

A few, a little

Any

No, nothing

None, none at all

As a rule the adjectives, numerals and pronouns explain the noun that is they form the steady noun phrases. For example ’…thesetwored beautiful roses…’; ’…a few big tasty apples…’, ’several tall strong men…’ etc.

THE VERB

The verb is the kernal of any language and it designates the action name of object’person’s condition. It’s important to remember both of these notions. The primary form is defined by the pfrticle of ’to’ before any verb ’to write’; ’to walk’; ’to make’ etc. The verbs can be Regular(p, and p.p. are formed by the suffix of ’-ed’) and Irregular. Like any parts of speech the verb has its own signs

  1. aspect

  2. reflection

  3. voice

  4. conjugation

  5. tense

  6. trnsition

  7. mood

When compose any sentence we are sure to take into account all ver signs. However as depending on expression sense it can be used some of the verb signs. Let consider everything using the instanced

1. Aspect

  1. Heisgoing to go tothecountryeveryday’ – ’to go – imperfect verb’

  2. He is going to go to the country tomorrow’ – ’to go – perfect verb’

You see the same verb ’to go’ can be used as an imperfect verb and as perfect one. In English we can define the verb aspect by the content of the concrete sentence.

2. Reflection

a) ’Thechild has been washing himself since lastyear’ – the action ’washing’ is returned to the executor(’thechild’)

b) ’The travellers had to carethemselves’ – ’the action(’tocare’) is returned to the executor(’thetravellers’)

3. Voice

The action can do the executor – Active voice

The executor can be subjected to the action – Passive voice

  1. Marycame in quickly while John was writing his letter’ – Active voice(’camein’;’waswriting’)

  2. Soon our mother is given a good present on the occaion of her brthday’ – Passive voice(’isgiven’)

4. Conjugation

The verbs’ changing by the persons and numbers is the conjugation.

  1. InspiteoftherainI’ve overcome the thick forest today’ – the 1st person singular

  2. It was seen as the sea-gulls. White ike a snow are circled over ship masts’ – the 3rd person singular the 3rd person, plural

  3. She usually begins to do her morning exercised at the proper time’ – the 3rd person singular

  4. You will not be frightened, my dear chold’ – the 2nd person singular

  5. The door was held only by a bolt’ – the 3rd person singular

  6. They are helped their relatives’ – the 3rd person plural

5. Tense

The action(condition) can proceed at present, in the past and in future(Present, Past and Future Tense, Active or Passive Voice). There are four Categories of Tense in English(Indefinite – Indefinite Continuous; Perfect – Perfect Continuous) and every of them contains of Present, Past and FutureTense. The actions can proceed at the same time, precede one another or follow one after another. Let’s consider everything by several instances

Indefinite

Present’The students of our University study a few subjects every day’

The famous hockey team is always the furst’

The mail is delivered in time’

Past’The waiter had to change several courses immediately’

Yesterday he worked on his invention the whole day intensively’

In spite of any reason the report was listened to carefully’

Future’Life will teach her a lesson’

He will be invited to the party, too’

Indefinite-Continuous

Present’My husband is staying in town tonight’

They are being looked at’

Past’It was raining when I went out into the street’

A new adventure movie was being shown by TV’

Future’Meg, will you close the window? The food will be getting cold’

Perfect

Present’I have heard her opinion’

My friends have bought a lot new books’

No mistakes have been made in the test’

Past’She had written only two letters by noon’

Future’I suppose he will have made up his mind before our departure’

Perfect Continuous

Present ’For several years I have been saving up to return to my homeland’

Past; ’She had been writing for two hours when she was rung up from New-York’

Future ’If you come at 7 he will have been writing for an hour by taht time’

6. Transition

The verbs are divided into transitive and intransitive. The transitive verb means the action transits to the object(person directly ’She reads(what?) anewspaper’; ’Jimmy saw(who?) him playing in the garden’

The intransitive verb means the action doesn’t transit to the object(person) ’Catherine walks alot’;’Ourship will put to sea in twohours’ etc.

7. Mood

The Mood is the action’s attitude to the reality and such attitude is determined by the speaker. By the verb’s form the speaker can introduce the action as ’real, unreal, problematical or introduce as an request or an order’.

There are the following Moods in English

1. The Indicative Mood expresses the real actions having taken place at present, in the past and in the future, f.e.

Forover one hundred years, the Statue of Liberty has stood in New-York Harbor, facing out to sea and holding high a burningtorch’

Adelineanxiously watched from her chamber window the sun set behind the distant hills, and the time of her departure drawnight’

2. The Imperative Mood expresses the motive to the action(request, order, advice), f.e.

Stop!’; ’Please, make nonoise’;’DoturntheTVsetoff’;’Let’snot talkaboutit’

3. The Subjunctive Mood contrast to the Indicative one doesn’t designate the action as real fact but it designates the action as a possible, an unreal, a supposed and a desired one, f.e.

If I knew the train arrival time I should meet you at thestation

If I had supposed that he would leave us, I should have changed my decision about his work

If it were not for these events my brother night be far from here

If he were not so busy he would have come last week

4. The Conditional Mood expresses real and unreal conditions when the action may preceed(present, past and future tense), f.e.

He went to meet me as though he would shake hands with me

Oh, if only I knew where tobe!’

’Oh, if only it would stop asnowfall!’

Will you come to us, won’t you? We would rather that you came to us tomorrow

If she were to refuse our invitation it would be by mistake

It was desirable that John should be advised with the guidance about working schedule maintenance

The verb has two specisl forms the participle and the adverbialparticiple.

The participle designates the object’s(person’s) sign by its(his/her) action

The particiles are divided into imperfect(present participle / pres.p. /) aspect and perfect(past participle / p.p. /) one. The participles have independent meanings(explain the objects or persons by their actions) and are used of forming some verbs’ tenses(Passive Voice and Continuous Tense). Let’s consider some instances

’She is reading an interesting article now’(Present Continuous)

’Pure broiled water was delivered immediately’(p.p. explain the object / water /; Passive Voice)

’Well-dressed coming nearer to us young man was a foreigner’ pay a particular attention that the p.p. and pres.p. explain the object of ’man’ by its action. According to ’The Analogy’ draw a parallel between the adjective what explains the objects(persons) by various signs and the particile(pres.p. and p.p.).

The adverbial participle designates the extra action by the principal in the sentence and adverbial participle can be either imperfect or perfect aspect.

Readingand writinghowevershehadtimetoanswer a lotofquestions’(underlined adverbial participles/ imperfect aspect / are the extra actions by the principal of ’hadtime)’

HavinglockedadoorJohnhurriedtohisstartedupcar’(havinglockedperfect adverbialparticiple, designates and extra action by the principal - hurried)

  • The modal vebs

What can it mean the idea of modality? It implies

a) the speaker’s attitude to the utterance’s content

b) prammatical category what is expressed by the verb’s forms, intonation and parenthetical words and again it expresses by the corresponding manner the speaker’s attitude to the utterance’s content

By the modal verbs expressing not the very action but the knack, physical possibility, ability, permission, probability, supposition, necessity, duty of order, prohibition, categorical advice, obligation, will,intention, senselessness or useless and so on to do any action or to dare to do it the speaker shows he supposes one or another action as possible or not, obligatory or not, probable or not and so on.

There are the following modal verbs in English

can(could)

Hecan play thepiano’;’Theboy could read before he went toschool’

may(might)

He may be at home’; ’You might go and help him’

must

My friend must be sure to rewrite his test today by 8 PM’;’You must warn him’; ’The streets are deserted. It must be late’

to have to

My sister-in law had to move from New-York to Baltimore for reason of health’

had better

You are wet through. You had better to and change your clothes’

to be to

Who is to arrange the chess competitions?’; ’We are to be ready to any surprises’

ought to

Ought she to make her new hair style?’; ’Generally the existent rules ought not to break’

need

Did you neeed to read all those books?’; ’Need I repeat it?’; ’I don’t neeed to explain anything’

dare

How dare she come here?’; ’He dared not look at her’

to be able to

The boy was able to drive a car’; ’You will be able to master mathematics’

The adverb

The adverb designates an action’s sign, an object’s sign and a sign of another sign

It is difficult to apprehend that definition after the first perusal but it’s accessible.

  1. The adverb designates action’s sign when is joined to verb or adverbial participle

to work together’; ’to live in a friendly manner’; ’reading carefully’; ’having written quickly’ etc.

2. The adverb designates object’s sign when is jioned to noun

the tie by knot’; ’with chest well out’; ’riding on horseback’ etc.

3. The adverb designates sign of another sign when is joined to adjective, participle or to another adverb

very arguable question’; ’too few’; ’too many’ etc.

The adverbs divided into

1. Adverbs of time and frequency

today; in the morning; in the evening the day before; now; a long ago; yesterday; in sinter; early; in the day-time; when; then; often; sometimes; ever; constantly’ etc.

2. Adverbs of place and direction

at home; above; far off; in the distance; at a distance; everywhere; anywhere; here; there and eveywhere; from a distance; to the right; the left; down; below; behind; close by; nearby; not far from; inside; abroad’ etc.

3. Adverbs of cause and consequence

’in a fit of temper; due to poor sight; against one will; consequently; as a result’ etc.

4. Adverbs of manner

quickly; well; slowly; clean; in a friendly way; in Russian; carefully; attentively; suddenly’ etc.

5. Adverbs of purpose

purposel; on purpose; for fun; to spite smb.; to what degree?; to what extent?’ etc.

6. Adverbs of measure and degree

very; very much; highly; greatly; too; quite; fully; enough; absolutely; utterly; quite; extraodindarily; extremely; so; in two; twice; together; two together’ etc.

7. Negative adverbs

nowhere; never; thereis nowhere; from nowhere; barely; hardly; scarcely; seldom; rarely’ etc.

8. Modal adverbs

certainly; surely; of course; really; indeed; perhaps; possibly; evidently’ etc.

THE AUXILIARY PARTS OF SPEECH

  • The preposition

It’s used as the expression of spatial, temporal, causal, purposeful, possessive, limiting and other relations between the objects or as the expression the same objects’ relations to the actions, conditions and qualities.

Generally the English prepositions are divided int temporal, spatial and causal. Pay a particular attention the English preposiiona are polysemantic threrfore the same preposiions can be used as temporal, spatial, and causal simultaneously. The English preposiions are used as prepositions of government of the cases relations between the noun and the explaining it words(adjectives, numerals, pronouns, participles). The prepositions can be pair and compound. The main English prepositions are the following

at, in, on(upon), of, for, from, above, under, near, behind, from behind(compound), over, along, to, into, onto, by, with, out, out of(compound), fromto(pair), till, off, from under(compound), in advance of(compound), against, during, since, opposite, facing, before, in front of(compound), beside, through, because of(compound)’ etc. Let’s consider a few instances and using the interrogative adverbs(when?, where?, why?) you can determine the preposiion’s rank

In accordance with the shedule the plane will arrive in time’(with / why? / - causal preposition; in / when? / - temporal preposition)

Heis on holidaynow’(on / where? / - spatial preposition)

Americans were delighted with this French gift’(with / with what? / - government preposition)

The room appeared to have been built in modern times upon a Gothic plan’(in / when? / - temporal preposition; upon / why? / - causal preposition)

  • The Conjunction

The conjunction joins the homogeneous parts of sentence in simple one; the independent sentences in the complex sentence and the subordinate clause with the principal one in the compound sentence.

The conjunction are divided in two main ranks

1. The Coordinating conjunctions

2. The Subordinating conjunctions

Like the prepositions the conjunctions can be the simple, pair and compound. The Coordinating conjunctions are divided into three groups

  1. the Copulative conjunctions

  2. the Adversative conjunctions

  3. the Disjunctive conjunctions

a) theCopulativeconjunctions

and(as colulative meaning); notonlybut also(pair); both;bothand(pair)’

b) the Adversative conjunctions

and(without opposition); but;but(as opposition meaning); however;but then;inreturn’

c) the Disjunctive conjunctions

or;whether; either; eitheror(pair); nownow(pair); halfhalf(pair); whetheror(pair); neithernor(pair)’

The Subordinating conjuncions are divided into the following groups

a) the Causal conjunctions

b) the Purposeful conjuncions

c) the Temporal conjunctions

d) the Conditional conjunctions

e) the Comparative conjunctions

f) the Expressive conjunctions

g) the Concessive conjunctions

Let’s consider the Subordinating conjunctions in more detail

a) the Causal conjunctions

’because; as; since; thanks to; owing to; thanks to the fact that; in connection with’

b) the Purposeful conjuncions

’in order(+ to inf.); with a view(to ger.); in order that(+ may + inf.)’

c) the Temporal conjunctions

’when; soon; as soon as; while; till( = untill); just’

d) the Conditional conjunctions

’if; if only; since; whether; as soon as’

e) the Comparative conjunctions

’as; like; as if; as though’

f) the Expressive conjunctions

’that; how’

g) the Concessive conjunctions

’though; however’

  • The Particle

The particles are called such words what usually don’t have full independent real or material meaning but generally they add extra tinges to the meaning of other words, groups of words, sentences or they are used for vatious grammatical relations. The particles aren’t changed and they aren’t as the parts of sentence. By their meaning they are divided into three ranks

1. The Form-building Particles

’whatever; whoever; whenever; wherever; whether; if’

2. The Negative Particles

’not; not a’

3. The Modal Particles

The Modal Particles express the vatious sense tinges in the sentence such as

a) question

’really?’

b) directions

’there; here; over there’

c) specification

’namely; videlicet(viz); that is; just; exactly’

d) apportionment, limitation

’exclusively; solely; merely; almost’

e) exclamation

’what; what kind/sort of’

f) doubt

’hardly; scarcely’

g) reinforcement

’even; be sure; really for all that; still; nevertheless’

h) softening, demand

’just; what if’

  • The Interjection

The Interjection is the particular unchanged part of speech what expresses the vatious senses and motives and the interjection isn’t a a part of sentence

’O!(Oh!); helloo; ha; O dear me!; oh; what a lie!’ etc.

Please, pay attneion to the designating each part of speech and other abbreviations using in ’The English-Russian Dictionary’

1. noun – n

2. adjective – a

3. numeral – num.card.; num.ord.

4. pronoun – pron

5. verb – v

6. adverb – adv

7. preposition – prep

8. conjunction – cj

9. particle – part

10. interjection – int

11. past tense – pt

12. past participle – pp

13. verbs – vv

14. plural – pl

15. the 3rd person singular present tense – 3rd pers sing pres t

16.superlative degree – superl

and etc. Every Dictionary contains the Using Instructions and you ought to read it carefully.

  • THE SYNTAX

The Syntax considers the word as a part of sentence and learns the word combinations and the sentence. The word combination is the Syntax’s unit and it is a combination of two or more independent words what are bound up with each other by sense and grammatically. The word combination consists of the main and depending words. The words sense connection in the word combinations is defined by questions what are put from the main word to the depending one therefore in any case your best assistant will be the interrogative words of ’who?, what?, when? why? how?’ etc. It’s concerned by senttence composing too.

The sentence is a single word or several words what expresses the information, question or motive(order, request, advice).

The sentence has its own structure and strictly words order in it

’subject – predicate – direct object – indirect object – attribute – adverbial modifier of place, manner, cause, effect, condition, concession, time’

The word combination serves as more detailed information about the objects(persons), actions and their signs.

The way of sentence’s composing:

a word – the word combination – the sentence

Above given part of grammatical conclusion will be for you like a multiplication table. You’ll make sure later that this way allows you to avoid any mistakes by sentence composing and summarize the numerous grammatical rules.

Now let’s return to the Grammar part of ’Morphology’ and pay attention to the parts of speech intercommunication in the word combnations.

The independent parts of speech such as noun, adjective, numeral, pronoun, verb(including its special form of participle and adverbial participle) and adverb have their primary form. As to the noun, adjective, numeral and pronoun their primary form is any name only

noun – name of any object or person(proper, common, animate, unanimate etc.)

adjective – name of any sign(colour, smell, size etc.). The participle names the sign but by object’s or person’s action.

numeral – name of any number(cardinal, ordinal, fractional etc.)

pronoun – pointing to the noun, adjective and numeral but names nothing

verb – name of any action(condition is expressed by the complex form)

All relations between the noun, adjective, numeral, pronoun and participle is expressed through the cases’ relations. Below you see the six cases and their purpose:

Nominative – name only

Genitive – part of the whole; absence, lack; belonging(’of, from, for’)

Dative – action’s address(’to’)

Accusative – action’s transition to the object or person

Instrumental – action’s unstrument(’by, with’)

Prepositional – acton’s revealing within, inside or on the surface of the object or person; what’s spoken about(’on, in, by, about, at etc.’)

Before it was said about the preposition of government therefore where needs it’s given the necessary prepositions of government.

Now we’ll unite the four basis notions to introduce the whole Grammar as ‘GeneralizedConclusion’ what including the two main Grammar parts ’Morphology’ and ’Syntax’

Morphology’thecases’relationsandtheverb’ssigns

Syntax’words’orderinthesentence;thewayofsentence composing

Pay a particular attention ‘GeneralizedConclusion’ will be as a guide to action forever therefore you must reprint it from Dictionary on the CD and keep it always before your eyes.

.

In our speech we express the real/unreal, conditional, preusmable, possible or impossible, compulsory or needless, probable or improbable etc. actions(object’s or person’s condition) by composing an impersonal, simple, complex or compound sentences(affirmative, negative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative ones).

‘GENERALIZED CONCLUSION‘

The cases’ relations

Nominative – name only

Genitive – part of the whole; absence, lack; belonging(’of, from, for’)

Dative – action’s address(’to’)

Accusative – action’s transition to the object or person

Instrumental – action’s unstrument(’by, with’)

Prepositional – acton’s revealing within, inside or on the surface of the object or person; what’s spoken about(’on, in, by, about, at etc.’)

+

Theverb’s signs(and its special forms)

  1. aspect

  2. reflection

  3. voice

  4. conjugation

  5. tense

  6. transition

  7. mood

The sentence’s words order

subject(Who?, What?) – predicate(What does?, Who does?, Who did?, What did?, What will do?, Who will do?, Who has done?, What has done?, What can do?, Whocan do?...” and so on for the Active Voice. “What is done?, Who is done?, What was done?, Who was done?, What’ll be done?, Who’ll be done?, What has been done?, Who has been done?, What can be done?, Who can be done?... and so on for the Passive Voice) – directobject(What?, Who {I see}?) – indirectobject(questions of G., D., I., P cases) – attribute(What?, Whose?) – adverbialmodifierofplace(Where?, Where to?, Where from?), manner(How?), cause(Why?), effect(Towhateffect?), condition(In what condition?), concession(In spite of what?), time(When?, How long?, Till when?, Since when?..)

The way of sentence composing

wordwordcombinationsubordiante clause

By the “The Generalized Conclusion” you’ll be able to solve any Grammatical tasks.

As it was spoken above the verb is the kernal of any language. But many same English words are used both as a noun and a verb, f.e. ’place(n) – toplace(v)’; ’turn(n) – toturn(v)’; ’shave(n) – toshave(v)’ etc.

The Regular English verbs form their Past Indefinite and the Past Participle by the ’-ed’ suffix adding to the verb’s base. When to define of ’Regular’ or ’Irregular’ verbs it’s enough to run over ’The Table of Irregular Verbs’. If there isn’t the necessary verb you can bravely add the suffix of ’-ed’ to its base, f.e.

to reply - replied’; ’to wash - washed’; ’to study - studied’ etc.

The English verb is subjected to the negligible changings when coordinates in the sentence. When the 3rd person of Present Indefinite Tense, the verb takes ’-s(-es)’ ending. The same rule is used for Noun’s Plural forming because the same word can be used as a noun, f.e.

Hewatches…(v, 3rd person Present Indefinite Tense singular)’; ’watch(n, singular) – watches(n, plural)’

Sheplays…(v, 3rd person Present Indefinite Tense singular)’; ’play(n, singular) – plays(n, plural)’

In our speech the special role plays the vatious interrogative sentences. The English and Russian interrogative sentences by their structure are the same and divided into the following groups

1. The General Questions

Put to the whole sentence, f.e.

Johnwritesthetest(affirmative sentence)’; ’Does Johnwritethetest?’(interrogative question)

2. The Special Questions

Put to the parts of sentence to define more exactly of any details and they are built on the General Questions base, f.e.

Really my sister graduated the University successfully last year’(affirmative sentence)

  1. question to the subject(…my sister…)

Who really graduated the university successfully last year?’

b) question to the predicate(…graduated…)

What did my sister do last year?’

c) question to the directobject(…theUniversity…)

’Really what did my sister graduate successfully last year?’

d) question to the adverbialmodifierofmanner(…successfully…)

’Really how did my sister graduate the University?’

e) question to the adverbial modifieroftime(…lastyear)

’Really when did my sister graduate the University successfully?’

There are used the special words such as interrogative pronouns of ’Who?’, ’What?’ and interrogative adverbs of ’Where?’, ’When?’, ’Why?’, ’How?’ and so on.

3. The Disjunctive Questions

Put to the purpose to ge a confirmation of expression’s justice of the affirmative(negative) sentence. By structure the Disjunctive Questions consist of two parts that is the affirmative(negative) narrative sentence and a short question consisting of a correlated with a subject of narrative part of sentence pronoun and the correlated with predicate auxiliary verb. If the narrative part of sentence is affirmative then a question is negative and vice versa

  1. He is at home, isnt he?’

  2. ’Your friends dont live in London, do they?’

4. The Alternative Questions

Put to the purpose to suggest to an interlocutor to make a choose between two objects, actions, qualities, notions etc. By structure that question is built on base of two General Questions linked by a disjunctive conjunction of ’or’, f.e.

  1. ’Are you leaving tonight or (are you leaving) tomorrow?’

  2. ’Do you want a black pen or (do you want) a blue pen?’

In our usual speech the Alternative Questions are curtailed on account of the second sentence’s part where are kept the words only which content an alteration, f.e.

  1. ’Are you leaving tonight or tomorrow?’

  2. ’Do you want a black pen or a blue one?’

5. The Think Questions

Put to the purpose to know an interlocutor’s opinion. They are divided into

  1. The General Think Questions

Do you think, itwillrain?’

b) The Special Think Questions

What do you think hetoldthem?’

Why do you thinktheywon’tstayalittlelonger?’

Howmuch time do you think hespentforhisinvention

c) The Disjunctive Think Questions

Do you think hewillphoneus or sendatelegram?’

Do you think she plays golf or tennis?’

In the sentences we use the parenthetical words what expresses the speaker’s attitude to the report and the parenthetical words have the following meanings

  1. confidence(more or less) ’of course; undoubtedly; absolutely; really; seem; evidently; probably; perhaps’ etc.

  2. source of report’accordingto’

  3. sequence of thoughts and their connection’firstof all;so;then;wellthen;onthecontrary;forexample’ etc.

  4. various feeling ’luckily; unfortunately; to surprise’ etc.

  5. Remarks about the manner of thoughts’ mounting ’inotherwords;inaword’ etc.

Now let’s consider by detailed Syntax analysis the most probable grammatical exanples through ’Generalized Conclusion’

  • The Indicative Mood

#1.

’Perhaps, Stanley gives Jane the flowers’: affirmative sentence; the Present Indefinite Tense; Indicative Mood

subject – ’Stanley’, proper name, singular

predicate – ’gives’, real action, expressed by a single transition irregular verb, the 3d person(’-s’ ending); primary form is ’to give’; Active Voice

indirect object – ’Jane’, proper name, singular

direct object – ’the flowers’, the common inanimate countable noun; plural

parenhetical word: ’perhaps’, expresses a less confidence

#2.

’Perhaps, the flowers are given by Stanley to Jane’: affirmative sentence; the Present Indefinite Tense; Passive Voice

subject – ’the flowers’, common inanimate countable noun, plural

predicate – ’are given’(primary form: ’to be given’). The Present Indefinite Passive Voice is expressed by the auxiliary verb of ’to be + past participle of sense verb’. The auxiliary verb designates a person, number and Tense(it’s conjugated), real action.

indirect object – ’by Stanley’, proper noun, Instrumental case(preposition of government ’by’)

indirect object – ’to Jane’, proper noun, Dative case(preposition of government ’to’), action’s address

parenhetical word: ’perhaps’, expresses a less confidence

#3.

Thesnowflakesslippedpastthewindownoiselessly’: affirmative sentence; the Past Indefinite Tense, Active Voice; Indicative Mood

subject: ’the snow flake’, word combination of two common inanimate nouns; ’flakes’: countable noun, plural; noun of ’snow(uncountable), used as adjective’ explains the noun of ’flakes’

predicate: ’slipped’, real action, expressed by a single transition regular verb, the 3rd person; primary form of ’to slip’

adverbial modifier of place: ’past the window’, word combination(adverb ­­+ noun)

adverbial modifier of manner: ’noiselessly’, adverb of manner. Complex word: ’noise(noun) + -less(suffix) = noiseless(adjective) + -ly(suffix) = noiselessly(adverb)

#4.

’While he was reading a newspaper I was writing an article’: two affirmative sentences connected by the temporal conjuction of ’while’; express the synchronous real actions; the Past Indefinite Continuous; Active Voice, Indicative Mood

subjects: ’he; I’ expressed by the personal pronouns(3rd and 1st person)

predicates: ’was reading; was writing’(primary forms: to be reading; to be writing)(Indefinite Continuous: to be + present participle)

direct objects: ’a newspaper; an article’, expressed by the common inanimate countable nouns

#5

’A new fascinating adventure movie is being shown by TV now’: real action; affirmative sentence; Present Continuous Passive; Indicative Mood

subject: ’A new fascinating adventure movie’; attributive expression: the noun of ’movie’ is explained by the noun of ’adventure’, by the present participle of ’fascinating’ and by the adjective of ’new’

predicate: ’is being shown’, primary form: ’tobebeingshown’; the 3rd person; primary form of the irregular sense verb: ’to show’

indirect object: ’ by TV’, istrumental case

adverbial modifier of time: ’now’, adverb

A subject is an attributive expression(refer to the section of attributive expression). Sense verb’s meaning from CDEnglish-Russian Dictionary’.

  • ImperativeMood

Order, advice, request (affirmative and negative sentences)

#6

a)

’Please read carefully all the following important safeguards that are applicable to your equipment’

’Push the FUNCTION switch to the RADIO position’

Don’t hurry and carefully step by step realize all single word and word combination meanings not forgetting about sentence of the Imperative Mood. It’s out of place to remember the notion of ’The SemanticEquality’ that is the selection of linguistics materials to express the same thought.

c)

’Watch for nearby vehicles or pedestrians’

(when driving)

d)

’Don’t return to the other lane too soon after passing’

(when driving)

#7

’O my children! O friends far distant! Alas!’: exclamatory sentences(O; Alas are interjections)

#8

’I intended to lie down somewhere till morning’: real action; affirmative sentence; Past Indefinite Active; Indicative Mood

subject: ’I’ – personal pronoun, 1st person singular

predicate: ’intended to lie’(primary form: ’to intend to lie’) is the complex verbal predicate.

adverbial modifier of manner: somewhere – adverb

adverbial modifier of time(compound): ’tillmorning(adverb + noun)’

  • Modal Verbs

#9

(skill)

’My mother can play the piano’: affirmative sentence; Present Indefinite Active

subject: ’my mother’; attributive expression; ’my’ – possessive pronoun; ’mother’ – animate noun

predicate: ’can play’ ’can’ – modal verb; ’to play’ – sense verb(after modal verbs without ’to’)

indirect object: ’the piano’; common inanimate countable noun

#10

(uncertainty)

’He may be at home’: affirmative; Present Indefinite Active

subject: ’he’ – personal pronoun; 3rd person singular

predicate: ’may be’; ’may’ – modal verb; ’to be’ – the auxiliary verb(after modal verbs without ’to’)

adverbial modifier of place: ’at home’(spatial preposition ’at’ and common inanimate uncountable noun ’home’)

#11

(permission)

a)

’Michael can I borrow your book?’

subject: ’I’ personal pronoun

predicate: ’borrow – a single verb of Present Tense

direct object: ’your book – word combination of a possessive pronoun and a noun(corresponds to the Accusative case’

address: ’Michael’ proper name

It’s realized of the familiar relation.

’Professor may I borrow your book?’

All sentences express the permission but the modal verb of ’can’ is used when familiar relations and the modal verb of ’may’ is used when official ones. The itnerrogative sentences.

#12

(preference)

’You are wet through. You had better go and change your clothes’

#13

(obligation)

’You ought to apologize to him for your coming late’

Compare the primary form meanings and in the sentence ones. Collate your actions by ’The Generalized Conclusion’.

#14

(needless)

a)

’You needn’t come’

The modal verb of ’need’ is used in negative and interrogative sentences.

’Need I repeat it?’

c)

’He dared not look at her’

Mainly the modal verbs of ’dare’ and ’need’ are used in negative and interrogative sentences. Control your steps through ’The Generalized Conclusion’.

#15

(modal verb’s equivalent)

’In spite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow he has had to be submitted with it’: affirmative compound sentence; the Present Perfect Active; Indicative Mood

the principal clause: ’he has had to be admitted of it’

subject: ’he’; personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular

predicate: ’has had to’(primary form of modal verb’s equivalent of ’must’ is ’to have to’)

direct object: ’to be admitted’(expressed by the Passive Voice)

indirect object: ’with it’(expressed by the preposiotion of government ’with’ and the indefinite pronoun of the 3rd person singular ’it’)

the subordinate clause of concession: ’In spite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow’(it’s brought in by the concessive preposition of ’in spite of’ and expressed by the word combination)

a) principal clause

he has had to be admitted of it’

b) subordinate clause

’In spite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow’

  • The Perfect Tenses

#16

’He has already taken a very nice book from the library’: affirmative sentence; the Present Perfect Active; Indicative Mood

subject: ’he’; personal pronoun; 3rd person singular

predicate: ’has taken’(primary form ’to have taken’)(’to have’ is the auxiliary verb; irregular sense verb of ’to take’)

direct object: ’a very nice book’; attributive expression; the common inanimate countable noun of ’book’ is explained by the adjective of ’nice’ and the adverb of ’very’

adverbial modifier of place: ’from the library’(spatial preposition of ’from’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’library’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’already’(adverb)

#17

’I had done my assignments by 7 PM’: affirmative sentence; the Past Perfect Active; Indicative Mood

subject: ’I’; personal pronoun; 1st person singular

predicate: ’had done’

adverbial modifier of time: ’by 7 PM’(the temporal preposition of ’by’ and precise time)

#18

’For several years I have been saving up to return to my homeland’: affirmative compound sentence; the Present Perfect Continuous Active; Indicative Mood.

the principal clause: ’For several years I have been saving up

subject: ’I’(the personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’have been saving up’

adverbial modifier of time: ’for several years’(temporal preposition of ’for’; indefinite pronoun of ’several’; common inanimate countable plural noun of ’years’)

the subordinate clause of purpose: ’to return to my homeland’(it’s introduced by the primary verb’s form of ’to return’)

adverbial modifier of place: ’to my homeland’(spatial preposition of ’to’; possessive pronoun of ’my’ and common inanimate countable noun of ’homeland’)

adverbial modifier of purpose: ’to return’(primary form)

a) principal clause

’For several years I have been saving up’

b) subordinate clause of purpose

’to return to my homeland’

#19

’When we came to the station the train had already left’: affirmative compound sentence; precedence action; Indicave Mood

the principal clause: ’the train had already left’;

subject: ’the train’; common unanimate countable noun

predicate: ’had left’; the Past Perfect Tense Active(primary form ’to have left)

adverb: ’already’

the subordinate clause of time: ’When we came to the station’

subject: ’we’; personal pronoun 1st person plural

predicate: ’came’; irregular verb(primary form ’to come’); the Past Indefinite Active

adverbial modifier of place: ’to the station’; spatial preposition of ’to’ and common unanimate countable noun of ’station’

a) principal clause

’the train had already left’

b) subordiante clause

When we came to the station

#20

’The letter has just been written by Michael’: affirmative sentence; the Present Perfect Passive; Indicative Mood

subject: ’The letter’; common inanimate countable noun

predicate: ’has been written’(primary form ’to have been written’)

adverb of time: ’just’

indirect object: ’by Michael’(proper animate noun)

#21

’If you come at 7 PM he will have been writing for an hour by that time’: affirmative compound sentence of real condition; Indicative Mood Active

the principal clause:’he will have been writing for an hour by that time’; the Future Perfect Continuous

subject: ’he’; the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular

predicate: ’will have been writing’; will, have and been are the auxiliary verbs’; writing is thesense verb’

adverbial modifiers of time: ’for an hour’; ’by that time’

the subordinate clause: ’If you come at 7 PM’

subject: ’you’

predicate: ’come’

adverbial modifier of time: ’at 7 PM’

  • Sequence of Tenses

#22

’I knew that he had worked at his invention before entering the college’: the affirmative compound sentence; Indicative Mood Active; precedance action

the principal clause: ’I knew’(the Past Idefinite Active)

subject:’I’(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’knew’(irregular verb; the primary form is ’to know’)

the subordinate object clause: ’he had worked at his inventory before entering the college’

subject:’he’(the 3rd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’had worked’(the Past Perfect Active; the primary form is ’to have worked’; the primary form of sense regular verb is ’to work’)

indirect object: ’at his invention’(causal preposition of ’at’; possessive singular pronoun of ’his’; common inanimate countable noun of ’invention’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’before entering the college’(the adverb of time ’before’; the gerund of ’entering’; the common inanimate countable noun of ’college’)

The subordinate clause is brought in by the subordinating conjunction of ’that’

#23

’I knew that he would be in the country on Sunday’: affirmative compound sentence; Indicative Mood Active; the following action

the principal clause: ’I knew’; (the Past Indefinite Active)

subject: ’I’(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’knew’(irregular verb; the primary form is ’to know’)

the subordinate clause: ’he would be in the country on Sunday’

subject: ’he’(the 3rd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’would be’(by the auxiliary verb of ’would’ is expressed the following action when Sequence of Tenses)

adverbial modifier of place: ’in the country’(spatial preposition of ’in’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’country’)

The subordinate clause is brought in by the subordinating conjunction of ’that

#24

’I didn’t know what I should do without him’: the negative compound sentence; Indicative Mood Active; the following action

the principal clause: ’I didn’t know’(the Past Indefinite Active)

subject: ’I’(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’ knew’(irregular verb; the primary form is ’to know’)

the subordinate clause: ’what I should do without him’

subject: ’I’(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’should do’(by the auxiliary verb of ’should’ is expressed the following action for 1st persons singular and plural when Sequence of Tenses)

indirect object: ’without him’(by word combination of a preposition ’without’ and a personal pronoun of object case)

The objective subordinate clause is brought in by the relative pronoun of ’what’.

  • Subjunctive Mood

(unreal condition)

#25

If I could go to a college my parents would be very glad to that event’: the affirmative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’my parents would be very glad of that event

subject: ’myparents’(the possessive pronoun of ’my’ and the common animate countable noun of ’parents’)

predicate: ’wouldbe

attribute: ’very glad to that event’

the subordinate clause: ’IfIcouldgotoacollege

subject: ’I

predicate: ’could go

adverbial modifier of place: ’toacollege

#26

If I had done my test correctly yesterday I wouldn’t have to rewrite it today’: the negative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’I wouldn’t have to rewrite it today

subject: ’I’(personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’wouldnt have to rewrite’(is expressed by the equivalent of modal verb ’must’/’tohaveto’/)

direct object: ’it

adverbial modifier of time: ’today’(adverb)

the subordinate clause: ’If I had done my test correctly yesterday’

subject: ’I’(personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’haddone’(the Past Perfect Tense Active)

direct object: ’mytest’(the possessive pronoun of ’my’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’test’)

adverbial modifier of manner: ’correctly’(adverb)

adverbial modifier of time: ’yesterday’(adverb)

#27

If my friend knew the train arrival time he should meet me at the station’: the affirmative compound sentence of unreal condition; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’heshouldmeetmeatthestation’

subject: ’he’; personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular

predicate: ’shouldmeet’(auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the sense verb of ’meet’ without the particle of ’to’)

direct object: ’me’(personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

adverbial modifier of place: ’atthestation’(spatial preposition of ’at’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’station

the subordinate clause: ’If my friend knew the train arrival time

subject: ’myfriend’; attributive expression(common inanimate countable noun of ’friend’ is explained by the possessive pronoun of ’my’)

predicate: ’knew’(the Present of the Subjunctive Mood; irregular verb)

direct object: ’thetrainarrivaltime’(common inanimate uncountable noun of ’time’ is explained by the common inanimate countable nouns of ’arrival’ and ’train’)

#28

(unreal /unfeasible/ wish; simultaneous actions both principal and subordinate clause)

I wished I knew French’: the affirmative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’I wish

subject: ’I’(personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’wished’(the Present Indefinite; regular verb)

the subordinate clause: ’I knew French

subject: ’I’ (personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’knew’(the Present Subjunctive Mood; irregular verb)

#29

(unreal /unfeasible/ wish; precedence action of the subordinate clause)

He wished that she had gone to the concert’: the affirmative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’Hewished

subject: ’he’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’wished’(the Past Indefinite Tense; regular verb)

the subordinate clause: ’that she had gone to the concert’

subject: ’she’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’hadgone’(the Past Perfect Active)

adverbial modifier of place: ’totheconcert’(the spatial preposition of ’to’ and common inanimate countable noun of ’concert’)

#30

(unreal wish; following action of the subordinate clause)

We wished (that) he would show us his pictorial picture’ the affirmative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’Wewished

subject: ’we’(the personal pronoun of the 1st person plural)

predicate: ’wished’(the Past Indefinite Tense Active; regular verb)

the subordinate clause: ’he would show us his pictorial picture

subject: ’he’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’wouldshow’(by the auxiliary verb of ’would’ is expressed the following action when Sequence of Tenses)

indirect object: ’us’(the personal pronoun; Dative case)

direct object: ’hispictorialpicture’(the possessive pronoun of ’his’; the adjective of ’pictorial’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’picture’)

#31

(unreal comparision; simultaneous actions both principal and subordinate clause)

He speaks Spanish as if he is a Spaniard’: the affirmative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’He speaks Spanish

subject: ’he’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’speaks’(the Present Indefinite Tense; the irregular verb ’tospeak’ of the 3rd person)

the subordinate clause: ’as if he is a Spaniard

subject: ’he’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’is’(the Present Indefinite Tense; irregular verb of ’tobe’ of the 3rd person)

direct object: ’Spaniard’(proper inanimate countable noun)

#32

(unreal comparison; the precedence action of the subordinate clause)

The huge boulders could be seen now here now there as though they had been thrown about by somebody in disorder’: the affirmative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Passive

the principal clause: ’The huge boulders’could be seen now here now there

subject: ’the huge boulders’

predicate: ’could be seen’(the Past Indefinite Passive)

adverbial modifier of place: ’now here now there’(pair of conjunction ’now ... now’)

the subordinate clause: ’as though they had been thrown about by somebody in disorder’(the subordinate clause is brought in by the conjunction of comparison of ’asthough’)

subject: ’they’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person plural)

predicate: ’had been thrown about’(the Past Perfect Passive)

indirect object:by somebody’(the preposition of government of ’by’ and the indefinite pronoun of ’somebody’)

adverbial modifier of manner: ’indisorder’(causal preposition of ’in’ and the common inanimate uncountable noun of ’disorder’)

#33

(unreal comparsion; the following action of the subordinate clause)

The sky began to be dark as if it would be just about to peal a thunder’: the affirmative coumpound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’The sky began to be dark

subject: ’The sky’(the common inanimate uncountable noun)

predicate: ’began to be dark’(the Past Indefinite; the complex verbal predicate; the primary form is ’tobegin to be dark’)

the subordinate clause: ’as if it would be just about to peal a thunder’(it’s brought in by the conjunction of comparison of ’asif’)

subject:it’(the indefinite pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’would be just about to peal’(by the auxiliary verb of ’would’ is expressed the Subjunctive Mood)

direct object: ’athunder’(the common inanimate countable noun)

adverbial modifier of time: ’justabout

#34.

(unrealizable desire; Present Tense)

O if only my sister were at home!’: the affirmarive exclamatory sentence; the Subjunctive Mood Active

subject: ’mysister

predicate: ’were’(the Subjunctive Present)

adverbial modifier of place: ’athome’(spatial preposition of ’at’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’home’)

#35

(unrealizable desire; Past Tense)

O if only my wife had rung me up!’: the affirmative exclamatory sentence; the Subjunctive Mood Active

subject: ’mywife

predicate: ’hadrungup’(the Subjunctive Past)

indirect object: ’me’(the personal preposition; Dative case)

#36

(unrealizable desire; Future Tense)

O if only their life could(would) be so well!’: the affirmative sentence; the Subjunctive Mood Active

subject: ’theirlife’ ’their – possessive pronoun plural’; ’life – noun primary form of feminine gender Nominative case singular)

predicate: ’could(would) be’; ’to be – existing link-verb primary form’

attribute: ’sowell’

The unrealizable desire of the Subjuncrive Future Tense is formed by the combination of the interjection, the conjunction of ’ifonly’ and the English Subjunctive Future).

#37

(expression of the unreal concession)

Even if she were here I wouldn’t come up to her’: the negative compound sentence; the Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’I wouldn’t come up toher

subject: ’I’(personal pronoun singular)

predicate: ’wouldn’tcomeup’(the Subjunctive form-building aixiliary verb of ’would’ in negative form and the sense verb of ’comeup’)

indirect object: ’toher’(preposition of government of ’to’ and the personal pronoun singular of ’her’)

the subordinate clause: ’Even if she were here’

subject: ’she’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’were’(the Subjunctive Present Tense)

adverbial modifier of place: ’here’(adverb)

The Subjunctive unreal concession expression is formed by the combination of the adverb and conjunction of ’evenif’ and the Subjunctive Present of the subordinate clause and the Subjunctive form-building aixiliary verb of ’would’ of the principal clause.

  • The Suppositional Mood

Besides the expression of various real and unreal actions in our speech we express so called presumable actions that is when considered not the very action but its supposition owing to some сircumstances what is expressed by the compound sentences. Usually the principal clause is epxressed by the impersonal sentences and they contain the expression of ’wish’, ’demand’, ’suggestion’, ’surprise’, ’afeelingofregret’, ’indignation’, ’gladness’ etc.

#38

If she were to refuse our invitation it would be by mistake’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood Active

the principal clause: ’it would be by mistake

subject: ’it’(the indefinite personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’wouldbe’(the Subjunctive form-building aixiliary verb of ’would’ and the link-verb of ’tobe’ without the particle of ’to’)

indirect object: ’bymistake’(the preposition of govenment of ’by’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’mistake’)

the suborcinate clause: ’If she were to refuse our invitation’(it expresses the supposition)

subject: ’she’(3rd person personal pronoun singular)

predicate: ’weretorefuse’(the Subjunctive Present = the Past Indefinite ’were’ + the sense primary verb’s form of ’torefuse’)(it can be any sense verb)

direct object: ’ourinvitation’(the possessive pronoun of ’our’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’invitation’)

#39

(foreknowing chance expression)

I shall let you know if my car should break down’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood Active

the principal clause: ’I shall let you know’(it expresses the promise)

subject: ’I’(personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’shalllet’(the auxiliary form-building the Future Indefinite Tense verb of ’shall’ and sense verb of ’tolet’ without the particle of ’to’)

indirect object: ’you’(the personal pronoun of the 2nd person singular)

direct object: ’know’(sense verb in the primary form without the particle of ’to’)

the subordinate clause: ’if my car should break down’(it expresses the condition)

subject: ’mycar’(the possessive pronoun of ’myand the common inanimate countable noun of ’car’)

predicate: ’shouldbreakdown’(the form-building of the Subjunctive Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the primary form sense verb of ’breakdown’ without the particle of ’to’)

#40

(foreknowing chance expression)

In case the operating gas delivery agreement should be broken we’ll have to sign a new one with another firm’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood

the principal clause: ’we’ll have to sign a new one with another firm’(it expresses the necessity)

subject: ’we’(the personal pronoun of the 1st person plural)

predicate: ’will have to sign’(used an equivalent of the modal verb of ’must’ ’tohaveto’)

direct object: ’a newone’(qualitative adjective of ’new’ and the noun’s substitute of ’one’ what substitutes the subject of the subordinate clause ’the operating gas delivery agreement’)

indirect object: ’with another firm’(the preposition of govenment of ’with’; the indefinite pronoun of ’another’ and a common inanimate countable noun of ’firm’)

the subordinate clause: ’In case the operating gas delivery agreement should be broken’(it expresses the condition; Passive)

subject:’the operating gas delivery agreement’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’agreement’ is explained by the nouns of ’delivery’, ’gas’ and gerund of ’operating’)

predicate: ’should be broken’(the form-building of the Subjunctive Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the primary form of the Passive Voice ’tobebroken’ without the particle of ’to’)

The conditional subordinate clause is brought in by the conjunctional words of ’incase’.

#41

It was high time that you should do your morning exercises every day’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood Active

the principal clause: ’It was high time’(the impersonal sentence)

subject: ’it’ (the indefinite personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’was’(the Past Indefinite of the link-verb of ’tobe’)

direct object: ’hightime’(qualitative adjective of ’high’ explains the common inanimate uncountable noun of ’time’)

the subordinate clause: ’youshoulddo your morning exercises everyday’(the subordinate adverbial clause; it expresses the advice)

subject: ’you’(the personal pronoun of the 2nd person singular)

predicate: ’shoulddo’(the Suppositional Mood form-building verb of ’should’ and the sense verb of ’todo’ without the particle of ’to’)

direct object: ’yourmorningexercises’(a common inanimate countable plural noun of ’exercises’ is explained by noun of ’morning’ and the personal pronoun of the 2nd person singular of ’your’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’everyday’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’day’ is explained by the attributive pronoun of ’every’)

The subordinate adverbial clause is brought in by the coordinating conjunction of ’that’.

#42

It’s essential that the prepared scheme should have been approved by my brother’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood

the principal clause:’It’s essential’(an impersonal affirmative sentence; it expresses the state’s tinges of a supposed action)

subject: ’it’(the indefinite personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’isessential’(the Present Indefinite of the link-verb of ’tobe’ + an adjective of ’essential’)

the subordinate clause: ’the prepared scheme should have been approved by my brother’(it’s expressed the supposed action; Passive Voice)

subject:’the prepared scheme’(a common inanimate countable noun of ’scheme’ is explained by the past participle of ’prepared’)

predicate: ’should have been approved’(the form-building of the Subjunctive Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the Present Perfect Passive of the sense verb of ’toapprove’)

#43

It was desirable that Alexander should be advised with the guidance about working schedule maintenance’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood

the principal clause: ’It was desirable’(an impersonal sentence; it expresses a wish)

subject: ’it’(the indefinite personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’wasdesirable’(the Past Indefinite of the link-verb of ’tobe’ + an adjective of ’desirable’)

the subordinate clause:’Alexander should be advised with the guidance about working schedule maintenance’(it’s expressed the supposed action; Passive Voice)

subject: ’Alexander’(a proper animate countable noun)

predicate: ’should have been approved’(the form-building of the Subjunctive Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the Present Perfect Passive of the sense verb of ’to advice’)

indirect object: ’with the guidance about working schedule maintenance’(a preposition of government of ’with’ and a common inanimate countable noun of ’guidance’; (a Prepositional case government preposition of ’about’, gerund of ’working’ and a noun of ’schedule’ explain a common inanimate countable noun of ’maintenance’)

The subordinate adverbial clause is brought in by the coordinating conjunction of ’that’.

#44

Our father wondered whether he should take a long-term credit’: the affimative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood

the principal clause: ’Our father wondered’(the affirmative sentence; the Past Indefinite Active Voice)

subject: ’ourfather’(a possessive pronoun plural of ’our’ explains the common animate countable noun of ’father’)

predicate: ’wondered’(the sense verb of ’towonder’ in the Past Indefinite Active)

the subordinate clause: ’whetherheshouldtakealong-term credit’(it expresses a doubt)

subject: ’he’(the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’should take’(the form-building of the Subjunctive Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the sense verb of ’totake’ without the particle of ’to’)

direct object: ’a long-term credit’(a common inanimate countable noun of ’credit’ is explained by the word combination of an adjective and noun ’long-term’)

The subordinate clause is brought in by the disjunctive conjunction of ’whether’.

#45

My fellow-traveller suggested that we should travel in the same state-room two together’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood Active

the principal clause: ’My fellow-traveller suggested’(it expresses the suggestion)

subject:’myfellow-traveller’(a common inanimate countable noun of ’traveller’ has an apposition of ’fellow’ and the explaining possessive singular pronoun of ’my’)

predicate: ’suggested’(the Past Indefinite of the sense verb of ’tosuggest’ without the particle of ’to’)

the subordinate clause: ’that we should travel in the same state-room two together’(it expresses the presumable action)

subject: ’we’(the personal pronoun of the 1st person plural)

predicate: ’shouldtraveller’(the form-building of the Subjunctive Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the sense verb of ’totravel’ without the particle of ’to’)

adverbial modifier of place: ’inthesamestate-room’(a common inanimate countable noun of ’room’ has an apposition of ’state’ and the spatial preposition of ’in’)

adverbial modifier of manner: ’two together’(the cardinal number of ’two’ explains the adverb of ’together’)

The subordinate clause is brought in by the coordinating conjunction of ’that’.

#46

The students demanded that their physics laboratory should have been supplied with the new modern equipment this academic year’: the affirmative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood

the principal clause: ’The students demanded’(the affirmative sentence; expresses a demand; the Past Indefinite Active)

subject: ’students’(the animate countable plural noun)

predicate: ’demanded’(the Past Indefinite Active)

the subordinate clause: ’that their physics laboratory should have been supplied with the new modern equipment this academic year’(the affirmative sentence; the Suppositional Mood Passive)

subject: ’their physics laboratory’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’laboratory’ is explained by the singular noun of ’physics’ and the possessive plural pronoun of ’their’)

predicate: ’should have been supplied’(the form-building of the Suppositional Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ and the Present Perfect Passive of the sense verb of ’tosupply’)

indirect object:’with the new modern equipment’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’equipment’ is explained by the adjectives of ’newmodern’ and the preposition of government of ’with’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’thisacademicyear’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’year’ is explained by an adjective of ’academic’ and demonstrative singular pronoun of ’this’)

The subordinate clause is brought in by the coordinating conjunction of ’that’.

#47

We are surprised that he shouldn’t follow up any matter to the logical end’: the negative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood

the principal clause: ’Wearesurprised’(the affirmative sentence; it expresses a surprise; the Present Indefinite Passive)

subject: ’we’(the personal pronoun of the 1st person plural)

predicate: ’aresurprised’(the Present Indefinite Passive; the primary form: ’tobesurprised’)

the subordinate clause:’that he shouldn’t follow up any matter to the logical end’(the negative sentence; the Suppositional Mood Active)

subject: ’he’(the 3rd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’shouldntfollowup’(the form-building of the Suppositional Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ in negative form and the sense verb of ’tofollowup’ without a particle of ’to’)

direct object: ’anymatter’(the common inanimate uncountable noun of ’matter’ is explained by the indefinite pronoun of ’any’)

adverbial modifier of place: ’tothelogicalend’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’end’ is explained by an adjective of ’logical’ and the preposition of government of ’to’)

The subordinate clause is brought in by the coordinating conjunction of ’that’.

#48

It’s strange that they shouldn’t be met at the hour agreed and in the place agreed’: the negative compound sentence; the Suppositional Mood

the principal clause: ’It’s strange’(an impersonal affirmative sentence; expresses a regret)

subject: ’it’(the indefinite personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular)

predicate: ’isstrange’(the Present Indefinite of the link-verb of ’tobe’ + an adjective of ’strange’)

the subordinate clause: ’that they shouldn’t be met at the hour agreed and in the place agreed

subject: ’they’(the 3rd person personal pronoun plural)

predicate: ’shouldntbemet’(the form-building of the Suppositional Mood auxiliary verb of ’should’ in negative form and the sense verb in Passive form of ’tobemet’ without a particle of ’to’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’at the hour agreed’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’hour’ is explained by the past participle of ’agreed’ and the temporal preposition of ’at’)

adverbial modifier of place: ’intheplaceagreed’(the common inanimate countable noun of ’place’ is explained by the past participle of ’agreed’ and the spatial preposition of ’in’)

As the homogeneous parts of sentence an adverbial modifier of time and adverbial modifier of place are linked by the copulative conjunction of ’and’.

Above given instances will be translated from English into Russian in «The General Course» section by the detailed analyses.

THE RUSSIAN PHONETICS

Note that every Russian words stressed vowel is marked by red

The word is the least intercourse’s unit and in its turn every word has definite meaning in our speech though it were ORAL or WRITING.

Meanwhile a single sound doesn’t have an independent meaning. In ORAL the word you pronounce by using our vocal organs and the words are differed from each other by the sound distinctive cover. It’s impossible to express the precise quantity of all sounds forming any language. When you hear any foreign speech like Russian one the unknown and unusual sound combinations are difficult for perception though many English and Russian vowel and consonant sounds are the same. The sound combinations present some difficulties when studying any foreign language therefore it’s important to give a particular attention to the Russian sound combinations especially their pronunciation.

There are not distinctions between short and long vowel sounds in Russian as opposed to English where the vowel sound length has an influence on the word sense.

In WRITING the word is depicted by the letters and some English letters are depicted like Russian ones.

Now let’s begin to consider the Russian language sounds and for all this you must always remember you have been speaking English since your childhood therefore you don’t control your vocal organs they work automatically. But now you’ll have to control your vocal organs work to obtain the correct pronunciation of the Russian sounds. All sounds and sound combinations will be presented in the straight brackets. It’s recommended to use a dictaphone to work through your pronunciation both separate sounds and sound combinations. You’ll have to determine and give a meaning to the marked by red and underlined transcription sign(or signs) independently. Please, don’t hurry. Pronounce slowly and observe the pause between pronounced sound or sound combination. Then you can pronounce everything at your own usual accent routine. Little by little we’ll bring in the new private rules such as:

If we speak or hear the word of ’A sound(or sound combination)’ in ORAL we must pronounce that sound(or name every sound forming that sound combination) but in WRITING we must depict that sound(or every sound forming that sound combination) by the transcription sign in the straight brackets.

If we speak or hear the word of ’A letter(or letter combination)’ in ORAL we must pronounce that alphabetical letter’s name(or pronounce every alphabetical letter’s name forming that letter combination) but in WRITING we must depict that letter(or every letter forming that letter combination) graphically.

Above given rules are called as ’The Division of The Ideas’ and they help you to comprehend one would think the complicated Grammar structure both English and Russian. For the present instance those rules are concerned to the Grammar part of ’Morphology(subsection of ’Orthoepy’, rules of correct pronunciation)’. English and Russian Grammar have two main parts:

Morphology(considers the word as a part of speech)’

Syntax(considers the word as a part of sentence)’

The notions of ’The Semantic Equality’, The Analogy’,’The Division of The Ideas’ and ’The Generalized Conlusion’ are the private ones. Every of them will be later filled in by the detailed content. They will allow you to perceive and give a meaning of all setting forth Grammar materials better according to your own individual abilities. Even you are always to summarize the studied Grammar rules to use them for qualitative sentences’ composing. Many of you are adult therefore you have a rich life experience what will be you the best assistant when you draw an analogy to many Grammar rules. To reach the good primary results you are to do the following:

to write or to type a lot to master the Russian letters writing way

to work through a dictaphone all given Russian vowel and consonant sounds

It doesn’t take much studying time(from one and a half to two hours per day). You know some English transcription signs are resembling to the English letters writing way but they aren’t the letters. They are the conditional signs’ rank only. In Russian all mentioned is the same.

The Russian Vowel Sounds

1. The Russian vowel sound of / a / corresponds to the English sound of / U / in the word of ’bus / b U s /’

2. The Russian vowel sound of / э / corresponds to the English sound of / e / in the word of ’ten / t e n /’

3. The Russian vowel sound of / и / corresponds to the English sound of / i / in the word of ’big / b i g /’

4. The Russian vowel sound of / о / corresponds to the English sound of / O / in the word of ’dog / d O g /’

5. The Russian vowel sound of / е / corresponds to the English sound of / e / in the word of ’yes / j e s /’

6. The Russian vowel sound of / у / corresponds to the English sound of / u / in the word of ’put / p u t /’

7. The Russian vowel sound of / ё / corresponds to the English sound combination of / jO / in the word of ’yacht /jO t /’ but separately that sound is pronounced more long.

8. The Russian vowel sound of / ю / corresponds to the English sound of / ju / in the word of ’cure / k ju W /’

9. The Russian vowel sound of / я / corresponds to the English sound combination of / jA / in the word of ’yard / jA:d /’. Please, pay attention the Russian vowel sound of / A / isn’t a long one like in the given English word.

10. The Russian vowel sound of / ы /. There isn’t such vowel sound in English language. Let’s consider that compound Russian vowel sound in detail. Pronounce several times the English vowel sound of / i / and control your vocal organs especially your tongue position. At that moment the mouth is half-open and tongue’s tip is above your lower teeth. Then control how the air passes outside.

Now press your tongue’s tip to the lower internal teeth gum. Your mouth is half-open. It’s a point of departure. From that point try to pronounce the English vowel sound of / i /. The received guttural vowel sound will be differed from the English vowel sound of / i /. It’ll be the real Russian vowel sound of / ы /.

Pages 57 65 (2432)

It’s always important to remember that the primary form of the independent parts of speech is as a point of departure when starting any word combination or sentence composing.

Let’s introduce once more the English verb’s signs what are the same as the Russian ones:

1. Conjugation

2. Aspect

3. Transition

4. Reflection

5. Tense

6. Voice

7. Mood

By a single Russian verb we can determine a person, a number and a Tense because the Russian verb has its personal endings when is conjugated, Tense form building and the Russian verb designates the gender of the object or person(Past Indefinite and Subjunctive Mood). Its a general distinction between the English and Russian verb.

The index of the English verbs primary form is the particle ofto

.

The index of the Russian verb’s primary form is the endings of ’ –ть ’, ’-ать’, ’-еть’, ’-ить’, ’-оть’, ’-уть’ and ’ –ся ( -сь )(Reflexive verbs)’

1. The Conjugation

The verbs’ changing by persons and numbers is the conjugation. By their personal endings the verbs are divided into two conjugations: the 1st and the 2nd. Let’s introduce the personal verbs’ endings:

the 1st conjugation

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

-у (-ю)

-ем

2nd

-ешь

-ете

3rd

-ет

-ут (-ют)

the 2nd conjugation

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

-у (-ю)

-им

2nd

-ишь

-ите

3rd

-ит

-ат (-ят)

To the 1st conjugation it’s concerned the verbs of endings of “-еть; -ать; -оть; -уть; -ть etc.”, f.e.:

to fly летать

to work работать

to get wet мокнуть

to grind молоть

’to spread – распространять

To the 2nd conjugation it’s concerned the verbs’ endings of: a) “-ить”(except of ’to shave брить’ and ’tospreadстелить):

to build строить

to go ходить

to carry носить

to fell рубить

to saw пилить

to compliment хвалить’etc.

7 verbs of “ –еть “ ending:

to see видеть

to look смотреть

to hate ненавидеть

to suffer терпеть

to hurt обидеть

to turn(round and round) – вертеть

to depend on зависеть

4 verbs of “ –ать “ ending:

to hear слышать

to breathe дышать

to hold держать

to drive гнать

2. The Aspect

The verbs of the imperfective aspect don’t point to the action’s completion, to its end or result. The verbs of perfective aspect point to the action’s completion, to its end or result.

Here it’s necessary to remember that a single English verb has two Russian meanings of imperfect and perfect aspects.

To the verb of an aspect can correspond the verb of another one of the same lexical meaning. Such verbs form the aspectual pairs, f.e.:

Imperfect aspect

Perfect aspect

to drawвычерчивать

to plough upвспахивать

to uniteобъединять

to reach достигать

to doubleудваивать

to illustrateиллюстрировать

to build сооружать

to drawвычертить

to plough upвспахать

to uniteобъединить

to reachдостигнуть

to doubleудвоить

to illustrateпроиллюстрировать

to buildсоорудить

There are used the prefixes to form an aspect from another, f.e.:

to go ехать(imperfect); to leaveуехать(perfect)’

to rush мчаться(imperfect); to come tearing alongпримчаться(perfect)’ etc.

and the suffixes, f.e.:

to push толкать(imperfect); to pushтолкнуть(perfect)’

to flood наводнять(imperfect); to floodнаводнить(perfect)’

The verbs’ aspects formation can be accompanied by the vowel gradation and the interchange of consonants of verbs’ stem. Pay a particular attention to the following table and to a designation pointing to the gradation and interchange:

Gradating sounds

Perfect aspect

Imperfect aspect

о / / а

е / / и

о / / ы

я / / им

а / / ин

д / / ж

д / / жд

ж / / г

т / / ч

з / / ж

м / / мл

ст / / щ

т / / щ

с / / ш

п / / пл

to be lateопоздать

to effaceстереть

to breatheвздохнуть

to understandпонять

to beginначать

to accompanyпроводить

to winпобедить

to set forthизложить

to answerответить

to lowerснизить

to tireутомить

to forgiveпростить

to defendзащитить

to begупросить

to strengthenукрепить

to be lateопаздывать

to effaceстирать

to breatheвздыхать

to understandпонимать

to beginначинать

to accompanyпровожать

to winпобеждать

to set forthизлагать

to answerотвечать

to lowerснижать

to tireутомлять

to forgiveпрощать

to defendзащищать

to begупрашивать

to strengthenукреплять

Some aspectual verbs’ pairs are as the different words and have the different bases:

Perfect

Imperfect

to takeвзять

to sayсказать

to putположить

to catchпоймать

to lieлечь

to sitсесть

to go outвыйти

to findнайти

to takeбрать

to sayговорить

to putкласть

to catchловить

to lieложиться

to sitсадиться

to go outвыходить

to findискать

The separate aspectual pairs can differ by the stress:

Perfective

Imperfective

to cutразрезать

to fill upзасыпать

to cut offотрезать

to cutразрезать

to fill upзасыпать

to cut off отрезать

3. The Transition

If the verbs are or can combined with the noun or pronoun in the Accusative case without preposition then they are transitive, f.e.:

vegetablesовощи

to like любить, нравиться

Iя

I like (what?)the vegetablesЯлюблю (что?)овощи

The transitive verbs designate such action what transits to another object.

If the action doesn’t transit strictly to another object then such verbs are intransitive, f.e.:

schoolшкола

to go ходить

they они

to в

They go to school Ониидут в школу’ Usually in this case it’s used a preposition.

4. The Reflection

The verb’s reflection implies the action’s return to the executor of given action. In English usually the reflection is expressed by the Passive Voice. The Russian reflexive verbs have the ending of ’-ся’ after the consonants, f.e.:

to teach учить(primary form of consonant ending); to learnучиться(reflexive verb); to go toschoolучиться в школе’

to meet встречать(primary form of consonant ending); to run acrossвстречаться(reflexive verb)’

to wash умывать(primary form of consonant ending); to wash(oneself) – умываться(reflexive verb)’ etc. and the ending of ’-сь’ after the vowels, f.e.:

I meet – Я встречаюсь(reflexive verb’s form)’

I pride – Я горжусь(reflexive verb’s form)’

I try – Я стараюсь(reflexive verb’s form)’

5. The Tense

Like in English the Russian verb has three temporal forms: Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense but there isn’t the notion of any Countinuous in Russian because the Russian verb is more flexible and independent. Its the general distinction between English and Russian Grammar Structure.

The Present Tense

The Present Tense verbs’ form show that the action takes place at that very instant of a speech and the verbs can designate the actions what are happened constantly.

The Present Tense’s verbs are changed by persons and numbers, f.e.:

The Russian personal pronouns

Singular

Plural

I – я

we – мы

you – ты

you – вы

she – она

they – они

he – он

 

it – оно

 

to read читать(the 1st conjugation)’

to go ходить(the 2nd conjugation)’

to build строить(the 2nd conjugation)’

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st I

read, go, build

1st we

read, go, build

2nd you

read, go, build

2nd you

read, go, build

3rd she

reads, goes, builds

3rd they

read, go, build

3rd he

reads, goes, builds

   

3rd it

reads, goes, builds

   

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st I-я

читаю, иду, строю

1stwe-мы

читаем, идём, строим

2nd you-ты

читаешь, идёшь, строишь

2nd you-вы

читаете, идёте, строите

3rd she-она

читает, идёт, строит

3rdthey-они

читают, идут, строят

3rd he-он

читает, идёт, строит

   

3rd it-оно

читает, идёт, строит

   

Remember that in Russian the familiar mutual relation is designated by the pronoun of ’youты(Russian Singular)’ and vice versa the formal mutual relation is designated by the pronoun of ’youвы(English Plural)’. You can compare the English and Russian verbs conjugation and make sure that by a single Russian one can determine a number, a person and a tense.

The heteroclitic verbs

The verbs of ’to want хотеть’ and ’to run бежать’ are changed by the 1st conjugation but partially they are changed by the 2nd one therefore they are called as heteroclitic verbs:

to want хотеть

 

1st conjugation

 

2nd conjugation

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st I-я

хочу

1stwe-мы

хотим

2nd you-ты

хочешь

2nd you-вы

хотите

3rd she-она

хочет

3rdthey-они

хотят

3rd he-он

хочет

   

3rd it-оно

хочет

   

to run бежать

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st I-я

бегу(1st conjugation)

1stwe-мы

бежим(2nd conjugation)

2nd you-ты

бежишь(2nd conjugation)

2nd you-вы

бежите(2nd conjugation)

3rd she-она

бежит(2nd conjugation)

3rdthey-они

бегут(1st conjugation)

3rd he-он

бежит(2nd conjugation)

   

3rd it-оно

бежит(2nd conjugation)

   

The verbs of ’to eatесть(кушать)’ and ’to giveдавать(дать)’ are conjugated particularly:

to eatесть(кушать)’

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st I-я

ем(кушаю)

1stwe-мы

едим(кушаем)

2nd you-ты

ешь(кушаешь)

2nd you-вы

едите(кушаете)

3rd she-она

ест(кушает)

3rdthey-они

едят(кушают)

3rd he-он

ест(кушает)

   

3rd it-оно

ест(кушает)

   

to giveдавать (дать)’

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st I-я

даю(дам)

1stwe-мы

даём(дадим)

2nd you-ты

даёшь(дашь)

2nd you-вы

даёте (дадите)

3rd she-она

даёт даст

3rdthey-они

дают (дадут)

3rd he-он

даёт даст

   

3rd it-оно

даёт даст

   

The Past Tense

Keep always in mind there is a Past Tense in Russian only though in English the action or condition can be expressed by the Past ContinuosTense, Present Perfect Tense, Present Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Tense or Past Perfect Continuous Tense. All of them correspond to the Russian Past Tense(imperfect and perfect meaning).

The Past Tense verbs’ form show that the acion took place before that very instant of a speech. The Russian Past verbs’ Tense are formed of the primary form by the suffix of ’-л’ and they are changed by numbers and genders in Sungular but they aren’t changed by persons in Plural, f.e.:

towriteписать

toworkработать

toseeвидеть

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

писал, работал, видел

1st weмы

писали, работали, видели

2nd youты

писал, работал, видел

2nd youвы

писали, работали, видели

3rd heон

писал, работал, видел

3rd theyони

писали, работали, видели

1st Iя; 3rd sheона

писала, работала, видела

   

3rd itоно

писало, работало, видело

   

The imperfective verbs having their primary form endings of ’-чь, -ти, -нуть’ form the Past Tense Singular, Masculine without suffix of ’-л’, f.e.:

to take care беречь

to carry нести

to bake печь

to dry сохнуть

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

берёг, нёс, пёк, сох

weмы

берегли, несли, пекли, сохли

2nd youты

берёг, нёс, пёк, сох

youвы

берегли, несли, пекли, сохли

3rd heон

берёг, нёс, пёк, сох

theyони

берегли, несли, пекли, сохли

1st I – я; 3rd sheона

берегла, несла, пекла, сохла

   

3rd itоно

берегло, несло, пекло, сохло

   

Some Russian verbs have the following Past Tense meanings:

to find найти

to go идти

to grow расти

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

нашёл, шёл, рос

1st weмы

нашли, шли, росли

2nd youты

нашёл, шёл, рос

2nd youвы

нашли, шли, росли

3rd heон

нашёл, шёл, рос

3rd theyони

нашли, шли, росли

1st Iя; 3rd sheона

нашла, шла, росла

   

3rd itоно

нашло, шло, росло

   

It’s important to remember the correct stress in the following Past Tense verbs’ forms according to their person and number. The Russian meanings will be introduced without a personal pronoun:

I took ябрал; she tookонабрала; it tookонобрало; they tookонибрали

I was ябыл; she wasонабыла; it wasонобыло; they wereонибыли

I took явзял; she tookонавзяла; it tookвзяло; they tookонивзяли

’I turned out – ягнал; she turned out – онагнала; it turned out – оногнало; they turned out –онигнали

I lived яжил; she lived – онажила; it livedжило; they livedонижили

I borrowed занял; she borrowedоназаняла; it borrowedонозаняло; they borrowed – онизаняли

I gave яподал; she gaveона подала; it gaveоно подало; they gaveони подали

’I understood – понял; she understood – онапоняла; it understood – онопоняло; they understood – онипоняли

I swam яплыл; she swamонаплыла; it swamоноплыло; they swamониплыли

I arrived яприбыл; she arrivedонаприбыла; it arrivedоноприбыло; they arrivedониприбыли

I lifted яподнял; she liftedонаподняла; it liftedоноподняло; they liftedониподняли

I received япринял; she receivedонаприняла; it receivedоноприняло; they receivedониприняли

I cleaned up яприбрал; she cleaned upонаприбрала; it cleaned upоноприбрало; they cleaned upониприбрали

The Future Tense

The Future verbs Tense form show that the action will take place after that instance of a speech. The Russian Future Tense has two forms: a simple and a complex. First of all let’s introduce the link-verb of ’to be быть’ conjugation in the Future Tense:

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

буду

1st weмы

будем

2nd youты

будешь

2nd youвы

будете

3rd sheона

будет

3rd theyони

будут

3rd heон

будет

   

3rd itоно

будет

   

The purpose of the link-verb of ’to be быть’ is the same like in English. The complex Future Tense form consists of the link-verb of ’to be быть’ and the primary form of the imperfective verb, f.e.:

to draw рисовать

I’ll draw – Я буду рисовать’ etc.

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st I – я

буду рисовать

1st we – мы

будем рисовать

2nd you – ты

будешь рисовать

2nd you – вы

будете рисовать

3rd she – она

будет рисовать

3rd they – они

будут рисовать

3rd he – он

будет рисовать

   

3rd it – оно

будет рисовать

   

A simple Future Tense is expressed by a single word that is by the perfective verbs. Russian perfective verb is formed by the various prefixes however in English the same is expressed by different way, f.e.:

to sleep спать’(the 1st conjugation)

a little немного

to sleep a little – поспать’(adverb a little corresponds to a Russian prefix of ’по-)’

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

посплю

1st weмы

поспим

2nd youты

поспишь

2nd youвы

поспите

3rd sheона

поспит

3rd theyони

поспят

3rd heон

поспит

   

3rd itоно

поспит

   

The verb of ’to keepдержать’ is an exception and it concerns to the 2nd conjugation.

to keep for a certain time продержать’(’for a certain time’ corresponds to the Russian prefix of ’про-’)

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

продержу

1st weмы

продержим

2nd youты

продержишь

2nd youвы

продержите

3rd sheона

продержит

3rd theyони

продержат

3rd heон

продержит

   

3rd itоно

продержит

   

The simple Future verbs’ Tense form of perfective aspect is arised the same way as the simple Present form, f.e.:

to open открывать’(1st conjugation)

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

открою

1st weмы

откроем

2nd youты

откроешь

2nd youвы

откроете

3rd sheона

откроет

3rd theyони

откроют

3rd heон

откроет

   

3rd itоно

откроет

   

to learn выучить’(2nd conjugation)

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

выучу

1st weмы

выучим

2nd youты

выучишь

2nd youвы

выучите

3rd sheона

выучит

3rd theyони

выучат

3rd heон

выучит

   

3rd itоно

выучит

   

6. The Voice

If the action can be done by the executor(object or person) then it’s called as Active Voice. If the executor can be subjected to the action then it’s called as Passive Voice.

You know in English the Passive Voice is expressed by the combination of the link-verb of ’tobe + past participle of the sense verb where the link-verb of ’tobe’ is as a number and a person index .

The Russian verb’s suppleness allows it to express the Passive Voice in many cases independently. Like in English the Russian past participle expresses the Passive Voice too what we consider just a little later.

Now let’s remember the personal pronouns declension:

Singular

Iя’, ’youты’, ’heон’, ’sheона’, ’itоно

(И)Nom.

я

ты

он

она

оно

(Р)Gen.

меня

тебя

его

её

его

(Д)Gen.

мне

тебе

ему

ей

ему

(В)Acc.

меня

тебя

его

её

его

(Т)Inst.

мной

тобой

им

ею(ей)

им

(П)Prep.

(обо) мне

(о) тебе

(о) нём

(о) ней

(о) нём

Plural

weмы’, ’youвы’, ’theyони

(И)Nom.

мы

вы

они

(Р)Gen.

нас

вас

их

(Д)Gen.

нам

вам

им

(В)Acc.

нас

вас

их

(Т)Inst.

нами

вами

ими

(П)Prep.

(о) нас

(о) вас

(о) них

to help помогать(imperfective, 1st conjugation)’

to help помочь(perfective, 1st conjugation)’

The Present Tense Active Voice

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

I

help

we

help

you

help

you

help

he

helps

they

help

she

helps

   

it

helps

   

Person

Singular

Person

Plural

1st Iя

помогаю

1st weмы

помогаем

2nd youты

помогаешь

2nd youвы

помогаете

3rd sheона

помогает

3rd theyони

помогают

3rd heон

помогает

   

3rd itоно

помогает

   

The Russian Passive Voice expression will be introduced after considering of the participle.

7. The Mood

The Mood is the verb’s form what points to the action’s attitude of the reality.

In our speech we express the real/unreal, conditional, presumable, possible or impossible, compulsory or needless, probable or improbable etc. actions(object’s or person’s condition) by composing an impersonal, simple, complex or compound sentences(affirmative, negative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative ones).

The presumable, possible or impossible, compulsory or needless, probable or improbable etc. actions(object’s or person’s condition) are expressed by the modal verbs.

The modality as such it is means the speaker’s relation to the utterance’s content and grammatical category what is expressed by the verbs’ forms, intonation and the parenthetical words.

By the modal verbs are expressed not the very actions but ability, physical possibility, capacity for, permit, probability, supposition, necessity, orders, prohibition, explicit advice, obligation, will, wish, intention etc. to do any action and are expressed the speaker’s relation to the content of the expression. There are the following modal verbs in English:

Can(could) – мочь(primary form). Expresses ability, physical possibility, capacity for, perplexity, incredibility, impatience, amazement

may(might) – мочь(primary form). Expresses supposition based on the uncertainty, the possibility creating by the obstacles, permission, disapproval or rebuke. The Past form of ’might’ can express the Subjunctive Mood what corresponds to the Russian Conditional Mood of unreal condition designated by the form-building particle of ’бы

mustдолжен(1st, 2nd and 3rd person, masculine singular); должна(1st, 2nd and 3rd person, feminine singular); должны(1st, 2nd and 3rd person, feminine and masculine plural);

tohaveto... – приходиться(primary form of reflexive). Expresses the duty, necessity(from the speaker’s standpoint); prohibition, pressing advice; supposition based on the confidence

had better... – expresses the preferable choice

to be to... – expresses the preliminary agreement or duty as a result; orders, instructions; something inavitable; a possibility stipulated by the obstacles

ought to... – expresses the obligation what can weaken depending on the context

need – expresses both necessity and needlessness

to be able to... – expresses the skill, possibility

dare – expresses the meaning of ’todare to dosomething

should – usually expresses the obligation but it can weaken to the expression of action’s desire, any advice or recommendation

Further all English modal verbs and their Russian equivalents are described in more detail

From the foregoing it follows that all actions and conditions can be divided into real and unreal. The real actions and conditions are expressed by the Indicative Mood, f.e.:

brotherбрат

myмой

tostudyизучать

Russianрусский

languageязык

My brother studies the Russian language Мойбратизучаетрусскийязык

to be – быть

toв

MoscowМосква

everкогда-либо

Have you ever been to Moscow? – Вы были когда-либо в Москве?’

About any Russian verb’s meaning refer to ’The Verb’ section on CD but every time don’t forget to aquaint with reading rules.

ifесли

weмы

to be late опаздывать(primary form)’

notне

friendsдрузья

homeдом

to find at home застатьдома

ourнаш(наше, наши, наших, нашими)’

If we aren’t late then we’ll find our friends at home Еслимынеопоздаем(perfect aspect), тозастанемнашихдрузейдома

If we aren’t late then we’ll find our friends at home Еслимынеопаздываем(imperfect aspect), тозастанемнашихдрузейдома

Pay attention to the Russian variant of subordinate clause. As a single English verb has two meanings its primary form in Russian then we have two Russian sentences and use one of them by our discretion.

The Russian Conditional Mood of unreal condition corresponds to the English Subjunctive Mood and it’s formed by the Past verb’s form of ’-л’ ending plus the form-building particle of ’бы’.

In Russian the form-building particle of ’бы’ can be either before the verb or after it however that particle can be separated of the verb by other words, f.e.:

to read(primary form) – читать(imperfective) – прочитать(perfective) – читал(Past imperfect) – прочитал(Past perfect)’

to draw(primary form) – рисовать(imperfective) – нарисовать(perfective) – рисовал(Past imperfect) – нарисовал(Past perfect)’

picture картина

bookкнига

We would read a book – Мы прочиталибы книгу’

I would draw a picture – Я нарисовалбы картину’

cinemaкино

to go идти(imperfect aspect), пойти(perfect aspect)’

I would go to the cinema – Я быпошёл в кино’

The Imperative Mood expresses the motive to the action, order, request. The ImperativeMood’s verbs are usually used in the 2nd person(singular or plural) and they aren’t changed by the tenses.

The Imperative Mood is formed on the base of simple Present or Future verb’s form by the suffix of

’-и’(singular number). In Plural the verb has an ending of ’-те’, f.e.:

to solveрешать(primary form imperfect); решить(primary form perfect)’

Solve! – Реши!(when familiar relations); Решите!(when official relations)’

Solve! – Решай!(when familiar relations); Решайте!(when official relations)’

to takeбрать(primary form imperfect) – взять(primary form perfect)’

Take! – Бери!(when familiar relations); Берите!(when official relations)’

Take! – Возьми!(when familiar relations); Возьмите!(when official relations)’

Sometimes it’s added the particle of ’-ка(just or what if)’ to the verb of the Imperative Mood what slightly softens an order, f.e.:

to go out выходить(primary form imperfect); выйти(primary form perfect)’

Just go out! – Выйди-ка!(when familiar relations); Выйдите-ка!( when official relations)’

Выходи-ка!(when familiar relations); Выходите-ка!( when official relations)

to buy покупать(primary form imperfect) – купить(primary form perfect)’

hatшляпа

What if I buy a hat! – Куплю-каяэтушляпу!’

Please don’t ever forget the Russian verb has its own personal endings when conjugated(section ’The Verb’ on CD).

THE RUSSIAN PARTICIPLE

The participle is the special verb’s form what designates the object’s sign by its action and like adjective answers to the question of ’what?(interrogative pronoun)’. That English interrogative pronoun has four Russian meanings:

какой?(masculine Nominative case singular), какая?(feminine Nominative case singular), какое?(neuter Nominative case singular), какие?(all genders Nominative case plural)’

Pages 152 161 (32 - 42)

#12

(modal verb’s equivalent)

In spite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow he has had to be submitted with it’: affirmative compound sentence; the Present Perfect Active; Indicative Mood

the principal clause: ’he has had to be admitted of it

subject: ’he’; personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular

predicate: ’has had to’(primary form of modal verb’s equivalent of ’must’ is ’to have to’)

direct object: ’to be admitted’(expressed by the Passive Voice)

indirect object: ’withit’(expressed by the preposiotion of government ’with’ and the indefinite pronoun of the 3rd person singular ’it’)

the subordinate clause of concession: ’Inspite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow’(it’s brought in by the concessive preposition of ’inspiteof’ and expressed by the word combination)

a) principal clause

he has had to admitt of it

subject: heон(2nd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: to have to приходиться(’must’ modal verb equivalent); has had toпришлось(Past Tense meaning)

direct object: to submitсмиряться(imperfect reflexive primary form), смириться(perfect reflexive primary form)

indirect object: withс(Instrumental case government preposition); it это(indefinite pronoun); with itсэтим(stable word combination)

he has had to be admitted of it емупришлосьсмиритьсясэтим

Never forget to observe conjugation and declension rules when making agree parts of sentence. Pay a particular attention the Russian reflexie verb of ’to submitсмиряться’ isn’t expressed by English Passive Voice. Use CD Methodical Instructions’ and CDEnglish-Russian Dictionary’.

b) subordinate clause

In spite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow

in spite ofнесмотряна(concessive conjunction);

incredibleневероятный(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)

effort усилие(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun); effortsусилия(plural)

the incredible effortsневероятныеусилия(stable word combination)

to improveвыправлять(imperfect primary form); to ariseсоздавать(imperfect primary form)

arisenсоздавшийся(Past Active participle masculine Nominative singular primary form)

situationситуация(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun), положение(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)

the arisen situationсоздавшеесяположение(stable word combination)

somehowкак-то(adverb of manner)

In spite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow Несмотрянаневероятныеусилиякак-товыправитьсоздавшеесяположение

Pay attention to the primary form of the words: ’arisenсоздавшийся(perfect participle); situationситуация, положение(noun of neuter gender singular)’. Russian participle is coordinated with the noun like an adjective that is in number, case and gender and has a corresponding to it ending(underlined word combination).

Now link both principal and subordinate clauses together:

In spite of the incredible efforts to improve the arisen situation somehow he has had to be submitted with it - Несмотрянаневероятныеусилиякак-товыправитьсоздавшеесяположение, емупришлосьсмиритьсясэтим

In spite of one would think the incredible complex sentences always observe a strict sequence of any sentence forming: ’primary form of all forming that sentence components their coordination in accordance with conjugation and declension’. When using an English ’must - должен’ modal verb equivalent of ’to have toприходиться’ in Russian it’s realized as a Passive Voice therefore the personal pronoun has a Dative case meaning(refer to CDEnglish-Russian Dictionary’ of personal pronoun declension).

  • The Perfect Tenses

#13

He has already taken a very nice book from the library’: affirmative sentence; the Present Perfect Active; Indicative Mood

subject: ’he’; personal pronoun; 3rd person singular

predicate: ’hastaken’(primary form ’to have taken’)(’tohave’ is the auxiliary verb; irregular sense verb of ’totake’)

direct object: ’a very nicebook’; attributive expression; the common inanimate countable noun of ’book’ is explained by the adjective of ’nice’ and the adverb of ’very

adverbial modifier of place: ’fromthelibrary’(spatial preposition of ’from’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’library’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’already’(adverb)

subject:

heон(3rd person singular personal pronoun)’

predicate:

to takeбрать(imperfect primary form); has taken - взял(Past Tense form)

direct object:

veryочень(adverb of manner)

niceизысканный(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)

bookкнига(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)

very nice bookоченьизысканнаякнига(stable word combination)

adverbial modifier of place:

from из(spatial preposition);

libraryбиблиотека(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)

from the libraryизбиблиотеки(adverb)

adverbial modifier of time:

already - уже(adverb of time)

He has already taken a very nice book from the library Онужевзялоченьизысканнуюкнигуизбиблиотеки

English Present Perfect Form corresponds to Russian Past Tense Form: ’has taken взял’. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#14

’I had done my assignmentsby 7 PM’: affirmative sentence; the Past Perfect Active; Indicative Mood

subject: ’I’; personal pronoun; 1st person singular

predicate: ’had done

adverbial modifier of time: ’by 7PM’(the temporal preposition of ’by’ and precise time)

subject:

I - я’(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to doделать(Imperfect primary form)

had doneсделал(English Past Perfect Form corresponds to Russian Past Tense Form perfect meaning)

direct object:

myмой(masculine Nominative singular possessive pronoun primary form)

assignmentзадание(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun); assignmentsзадания(plural)

my assignmentsмоизадания(stable word combination)

adverbial modifier of time:

byк(temporal preposition)

o’clockчас(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun)

sevenсемь(Nominative cardinal numeral)

eveningвечер(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular primary form); вечерний(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)

timeвремя(inanimate uncountable neuter Nominative singular noun)

evening timeвечернеевремя(stable word combination)

PMevening time;by 7 PM(by seven o’clock in the evening time) – ксемичасамвечера(stable word combination)

I had done my assignments by 7 PM Я сделал мои задания к семи часам вечера

Additional meanings are given to comprehend a difference between time counting out system. Everytime refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#15

For several yearsIhave been saving upto returnto myhomeland’: affirmative compound sentence; the Present Perfect Continuous Active; Indicative Mood.

the principal clause: ’For several years I have been saving up

subject: ’I’(the personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’havebeen savingup

adverbial modifier of time: ’forseveralyears’(temporal preposition of ’for’; indefinite pronoun of ’several’; common inanimate countable plural noun of ’years’)

the subordinate clause of purpose: ’to returnto myhomeland’(it’s introduced by the primary verb’s form of ’to return’)

adverbial modifier of place: ’tomyhomeland’(spatial preposition of ’to’; possessive pronoun of ’my’ and common inanimate countable noun of ’homeland’)

adverbial modifier of purpose: ’toreturn’(primary form)

a) principal clause

For several years I have been saving up

subject: Iя(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: to save upкопить(imperfect primary form)

have been saving upкоплю(English Present Perfect Continuous corresponds to Russian Present Tense Form Active

adverbial modifier of time:

forвтечение(temporal preposition)

severalнесколько(numeral)

yearгод(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun); yearsгоды(plural)

for several years втечениенесколькихлет(stable word combination)

For several years I have been saving upВтечениенесколькихлетякоплю

Pay attention to the adverbial modifier of time: ’yearsгоды’ and ’for several years втечениенесколькихлет’. Every language contents some quantity of exceptions to the rules. We say: ’a yearодингод’; ’two yearsдвагода’; ’three yearsтригода’; ’four yearsчетырегода’ but ’five yearsпятьлет...’; ...’nineteen yearsдевятнадцатьлет’; ’twenty yearsдвадцатьлет’; but ’twenty-one yearsдвадцатьодингод’; ... ’twenty-four yearsдвадцатьчетырегода’; but ’twenty-five yearsдвадцатьпятьлет’ and so on. Refer to CDMethodical Instructions’ of ‘Russian Cardinal Numeral and Noun concord’.

b) subordinate clause of purpose

to return to my homeland

adverbial modifier of purpose

to returnвозвращаться(imperfect primary form), вернуться(perfect primary form)

adverbial modifier of place:

toна(spatial preposition)

my мой(masculine Nominative singular possessive pronoun primary form)

homelandродина(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)

to my homelandнамоюродину(stable word combination)

’to return to my homeland – чтобывернутьсянамоюродину

The subordinate clause of purpose is brought in by the Russian expressive conjunction of ’чтобы’ which corresponds to the English verb’s primary form. Let’s link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

For several years I have been saving up to return to my homeland – Втечениенесколькихлетякоплю, чтобывернутьсянамоюродину

In Russian the subordinate clause of purpose is separated by the comma. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#16

When wecameto the stationthe trainhadalreadyleft’: affirmative compound sentence; precedence action; Indicave Mood

the principal clause: ’the trainhadalreadyleft’;

subject: ’the train’; common unanimate countable noun

predicate: ’had left’; the Past Perfect Tense Active(primary form ’to have left)

adverb: ’already

the subordinate clause of time: ’When wecameto the station

subject: ’we’; personal pronoun 1st person plural

predicate: ’came’; irregular verb(primary form ’to come’); the Past Indefinite Active

adverbial modifier of place: ’to the station’; spatial preposition of ’to’ and common unanimate countable noun of ’station

a) principal clause

the train had already left

subject:

trainпоезд(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun)

predicate:

to leaveпокидать(imperfect primary form), уходить(imperfect primary form)

had leftушёл(English Past Perfect Tense Form corresponds to Russian Past Tense Form perfect meaning)

had already leftужеушёл(stable word combination)

adverb:

alreadyуже(adverb of time)

the train had already left поездужеушёл

It’s the usual simple sentence.

b) subordiante clause

When we came to the station

whenкогда(adverb of time)’;

weмы(1st person plural personal pronoun)

to comeприходить(imperfect primary form); cameпришёл, пришла, пришло, пришли(Past Tense verb’s perfect meanings 1st, 3rd persons singular and all persons plural)(CD ’Dictionary’)

toна(spatial preposition) ’stationстанция(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun) вокзал(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun)

to the stationнавокзал(stable word combination)

When we came to the station Когдамыпришлинавокзал

When coordinate collate your steps by ’TheGeneralizedConclusion’, ’English-RussianDictionary’ and Dictionary on CD.

Let’s link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

When we came to the station the train had already left Когдамыпришлинавокзал, поездужеушёл

Don’t forget the Russian verbs have the personal endings and take it into account when concording. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#17

Theletterhasjustbeen writtenbyMichael’: affirmative sentence; the Present Perfect Passive; Indicative Mood

subject: ’Theletter’; common inanimate countable noun

predicate: ’has been written’(primary form ’to have been written)

adverb of time: ’just

indirect object: ’by Michael’(proper animate noun)

subject: ’letterписьмо(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)

predicate:

to writeписать(imperfect primary form)

justтолькочто(adverb of time)

has just been writtenтолькочтонаписано(stable word combination)

indirect object:

by – government preposition of Instrumental case; MichaelМиша(proper masculine name)

The letter has just been written by Michael ПисьмотолькочтонаписаноМишей

Russian proper names are declined as the ordinary nouns. Pay attention the action is expressed by the Russian participle’s short form(full form ’writtenнаписанный’). Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#18

(real condition)

Ifyoucomeat 7 PM hewill have been writingfor an hour by that time’: affirmative compound sentence of real condition; Indicative Mood Active

the principal clause: ’hewill have been writingfor an hour by that time’; the Future Perfect Continuous

subject: ’he’; the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular

predicate: ’will have been writing’; ’will, have and been are the auxiliary verbs’; ’writing is the sense verb’

adverbial modifiers of time: ’foranhour’; ’by that time

the subordinate clause: ’Ifyoucomeat 7 PM’

subject: ’you

predicate: ’come

adverbial modifier of time: ’at 7 PM’

a) principal clause

he will have been writing for an hour by that time

subject:

heон(3rd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

will have been writing будетписать(complex Future Tense form)

to write писать(imperfect primary form). There isn’t a notion of ’the Future Perfect Continuous’ in Russian but there is the Future Tense only that’s why one can express the complex Future Tense form of ’будетписать

adverbial modifier of time:

for an hour втечениечаса: The government preposition of ’for’ designates a Genitive case and corresponding to it noun’s ending(’часа’) but the same preposition designates a space of action’s time

adverbial modifier of time:

by - к(temporal preposition)

by that time ктомувремени(stable word combination)

thatтот(demonstrative pronoun primary form)’; ’time - время(inanimate uncountable neuter Nominative singular noun)

he will have been writing for an hour by that time онбудетписатьвтечениечасакэтомувремени

The sentence’s sense is that the executor will make an action in Future for a definite space of time by the designated time.

b) subordinate clause of real condition

If you come at 7 PM

subject:

you вы(ты): personal pronoun. It has two Russian meanings of official ’you - вы’ and familiar ’you - ты

predicate:

come: ’to come - приходить(imperfect primary form)

adverbial modifier of time: at 7 PM – всемьчасоввечера:

atв(temporal preposition) Instance #17 contents a detailed explanation about Russian time counting out system.

if - если(conditional conjunction)

If you come at 7 PM Если вы придёте в семь часов вечера

Now link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

If you come at 7 PM he will have been writing for an hour by that time Есливыпридётевсемьчасоввечера, онбудетписатьвтечениечасакэтомувремени’

The subordinate clause of real condition can be placed either before the principal one or after it but the subordinate clause is separated by the comma. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

  • Sequence of Tenses

#19

I knewthathehad workedat his inventionbefore entering thecollege’: the affirmative compound sentence; Indicative Mood Active; precedance action

the principal clause: ’I knew’(the Past Idefinite Active)

subject: ’I’(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’knew’(irregular verb; the primary form is ’to know’)

the subordinate object clause: ’he had worked at his inventory before entering the college’

subject: ’he’(the 3rd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’had worked’(the Past Perfect Active; the primary form is ’tohaveworked’; the primary form of sense regular verb is ’towork’)

indirect object: ’at his invention’(causal preposition of ’at’; possessive singular pronoun of ’his’; common inanimate countable noun of ’invention’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’before entering thecollege’(the adverb of time ’before’; the gerund of ’entering’; the common inanimate countable noun of ’college’)

The subordinate clause is brought in by the subordinating conjunction of ’that

a) principal clause

I knew

subject: Iя(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to knowзнать(imperfect primary form)

knewзнал(Past Tense perfect meaning)

I knewЯ знал

It’s a simple Past Indefinite sentence.

b) Object Subordinate clause

that he had worked at his invention before entering the college

subject: he он(3rd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to workработать(primary form)

had workedработал(past tense imperfect meaning). Though in English an action is expressed by the Past Perfect Form its Russian equivalent is expressed by Past Tense Form but in our case of imperfect meaning. Remember about it rigorously.

indirect object:

inventionизобретение(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)

atнад(points to the action, pursuit and designates an Instrumental case)

hisего(своим)(possessive pronoun; has two Russian meanings)

at his inventionнадсвоимизобретением(stable word combination)

adverbial modifier of time:

beforeперед/до/(temporal preposition)

to enterпоступать(imperfect primary form); enteringпоступление(verbal inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)

college - колледж(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun)

before entering the collegeперед(до)поступлениемвколледж(stable word combination)

The objective subordinate clause is brought in by the expressive conjunction of ’that - что’. There is given thd expressive conjunction primary form having stressed vowel but in the compound sentence many conjunctions are unstressed.

’that he had worked at his invention before entering the college чтоонработалнадсвоимизобретениемдопоступлениявколледж

Though in English the action is realized by the Past Perfect Tense in Russian the same action in realized by Past Tense Form. Link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

I knew that he had worked at his invention before entering the collegeЯзнал, чтоонработалнадсвоимизобретениемдопоступлениявколледж

Though the English principal clause expresses the precedance action and in both clauses are used different English verb’s form in Russian compound sentence both principal clause and subordinate one contain the Past Tense form. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#20

I knew that hewould bein the countryonSunday’: affirmative compound sentence; Indicative Mood Active; the following action

the principal clause: ’I knew’; (the Past Indefinite Active)

subject: ’I’(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’knew’(irregular verb; the primary form is ’to know’)

the subordinate clause: ’he would be in the country on Sunday’

subject: ’he’(the 3rd person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’would be’(by the auxiliary verb of ’would’ is expressed the following action when Sequence of Tenses)

adverbial modifier of place: ’in the country’(spatial preposition of ’in’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’country’)

adverbial modifier of time: ’on Sunday ввоскресенье’: ’Sunday - воскресенье’; ’on в(used of week days names)’

The subordinate clause is brought in by the subordinating conjunction of ’that

a) principal clause

I knew

subject: ’Iя(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to knowзнать(imperfect primary form)

knewзнал(Past Tense imperfect meaning)

I knewЯ знал

It’s a simple Past Indefinite sentence.

b) subordinate clause

that he would be in the country on Sunday

subject: he он(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to beбыть, являться, находиться(existing link-verb primary form)

would beбудет(simple Future Tense form)

adverbial modifier of place:

city - город(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun); out of a cityвнегорода(stable word combination)

country(out of city settlement) – деревня(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun), дача(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)

in the countryзагородом. The phrase of ’out of a cityвнегорода’ is sinonymous to the phrase of ’in the countryзагородом, надаче(stable word combination)

adverbial modifier of time: ’on Sunday ввоскресенье’: ’Sunday - воскресенье’; ’on в(used of week days names)’

The objective subordinate clause is brought in by the expressive conjunction of ’that - что’.

that he would be in the country on Sundayчтоонбудетнадачеввоскресенье

Let’s link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

’I knew that he would be in the country on Sunday – Язнал, чтоонбудетнадачеввоскресенье

Be carefully about English and Russian verbs’ meanings always remembering that in Russian there are Present, Past and Future Tense only. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#21

I didn’t know what I should do without him’: the negative compound sentence; Indicative Mood Active; the following action

the principal clause: ’I didn’t know’(the Past Indefinite Active)

subject: ’I’(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’ knew’(irregular verb; the primary form is ’to know’)

the subordinate clause: ’what I should do without him’

subject:

I(the 1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate: ’should do’(by the auxiliary verb of ’should’ is expressed the following action for 1st persons singular and plural when Sequence of Tenses)

indirect object: ’without him’(by word combination of a preposition ’without’ and a personal pronoun of object case)

The objective subordinate clause is brought in by the relative pronoun of ’what’.

a) principal clause

I didn’t know’

subject: I – я(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to knowзнать(imperfect primary form)

didnt know незнал(Past Tense imperfect meaning)

I didn’t knowЯ не знал

A simple Past Indefinite sentence

b) subordinate clause

what I should do without him

subject: I – я(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to doделать(imperfect primary form)

should doбудуделать(Future Tense complex form)

indirect object: ’withouthimбезнего’: ’withoutбез(preposition)’; ’him него(Genitive case meaning of personal pronoun ’heон’)’

what I should do without him чтоябудуделатьбезнего

Let’s link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

I didn’t knowwhat I should do without himЯ не знал, что я буду делать без него

Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

  • Subjunctive Mood

(unreal condition)

#22

If I could go to a college my parents would be very glad to that event’: the affirmative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’my parents would be very glad of that event’

subject: ’myparents’(the possessive pronoun of ’my’ and the common animate countable noun of ’parents’)

predicate: ’wouldbe

attribute: ’very glad to that event

the subordinate clause: ’If I could go to a college

subject: ’I

predicate: ’couldgo

adverbial modifier of place: ’to a college

a) principal clause

my parents would be very glad of that event

subject:

myмой(masculine Nominative singular possessive pronoun primary form)

parentsродители(animate masculine Nominative plural noun)

my parentsмоиродители(stable word combination)

predicate:

would be былибы(Subjunctive primary form)

to beбыть, являться, находиться(link-verb of existing); Russian Subjunctive Mood is expressed by the combination of the Russian Past Tense Form + a form-building particle of ’бы

attribute:

very glad to that event оченьрадыэтомусобытию’: ’veryочень(adverb)’; ’gladрад (short form adjective; Russian adjective has either full or short form)’; ’to – Dative case government preposition’; ’that этот(demonstrative pronoun)’; ’event - событие’. Because there is a Dative case designation through the government preposition of ’to’ then the noun of ’event - событие’ has a corresponding to Dative case ending but the demonstrative pronoun of ’thatэтот’ is coordinated with the noun in case, gender and number(refer to CDEnglish-Russian Dictionary’ Paginal Words Address through Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual.

my parents would be very glad of that eventмоиродителибылибыоченьрадыэтомусобытию

If you don’t understand anything refer to the section of Russian Subjunctive Mood expression.

b) subordinate clause

If I could go to a college

subject: I – я(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

could goпошёлбы(Subjunctive primary form)

to goидти(imperfect primary form)

adverbial modifier of place:

toв(spatial preposition)

college колледж(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun)

to a collegeвколледж(stable word combination)

If I could go to a college Еслибыяпошёлвколледж

If you don’t understand anything refer to the section of Russian Subjunctive Mood expression. Never hurry and work at every position.

Let’s link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

’If I could go to a college my parents would be very glad of that event – Еслибыяпошёлвколледжмоиродителибылибыоченьрадыэтомусобытию

If I could go to a college my parents would be very glad of that event Еслияпошёлбывколледжмоиродителибылибыоченьрадыэтомусобытию

You see two Russian variants of a single English sentence. Pay attention to the Russian form-building particle of ’бы’ position in every sentence when the last can be separated by other words from a verb. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#23

If I had done my test correctly yesterday I wouldn’t have to rewrite it today’: the negative compound sentence; Subjunctive Mood Active

the principal clause: ’I wouldn’t have to rewrite it today

subject: ’I’(personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’wouldnt have to rewrite’(is expressed by the equivalent of modal verb ’must’/’to have to’/)

direct object: ’it

adverbial modifier of time: ’today’(adverb)

the subordinate clause: ’If I had done my test correctly yesterday

subject: ’I’(personal pronoun of the 1st person singular)

predicate: ’had done’(the Past Perfect Tense Active)

direct object: ’mytest’(the possessive pronoun of ’my’ and the common inanimate countable noun of ’test’)

adverbial modifier of manner: ’correctly’(adverb)

adverbial modifier of time: ’yesterday’(adverb)

a) principal clause

I wouldn’t have to rewrite it today

subject: I я(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to rewriteпереписывать(imperfect primary form)

wouldn’t have to rewriteнепришлосьбыпереписывать(Subjunctive primary form)

direct object: it - это(indefinite pronoun)

adverbial modifier of time:

today - сегодня’(adverb of time)

I wouldn’t have to rewrite it today мне не пришлось бы переписывать её сегодня

Pay attention to the Russian meaning of the indefinite pronoun of ’it - это’ in the Russian principal clause ’её’. When we consider the subordinate clause we’ll return to that pronoun meaning.

b) subordinate clause

If I had done my test correctly yesterday

subject: I я(1st person singular personal pronoun)

predicate:

to doделать(imperfect primary form)

had doneсделал(Past Tense perfect meaning)

direct object: ’my testмояконтрольнаяработа’: ’my мой(masculine Nominative possessive pronoun primary form)’; ’testконтрольнаяработа’. Consider in more detail the sense matter of English word of ’test’ relatively to the Russian equivalent of ’контрольнаяработа’ and what can that Russian word combination means in English: ’controlконтрольный(Russian adjective primary form of masculine gender Nominative Singular)’; ’workработа(Russian noun primary form of Nominative Singular)’. As Russian adjective is coordinated with noun in gender, case and number but that noun of ’workработа’ is of Feminine gender then the Russian adjective has a corresponding to Nominative case ending. Every noun though it were a single one or a word combination we can change by a pronoun therefore because the Russian noun is of Feminine 3rd person Singular we use a Russian pronoun of ’она(3rd person primary form Nominative Singular)’. In subordinate clause that pronoun is as an indirect object(Accusative case meaning and it has a corresponding meaning in the principal clause(indirect object of ’её’)(refer to CDEnglish-Russian Dictionary’ Paginal Words Address through Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual).

adverbial modifier of manner

correctlyправильно(adverb of manner)

adverbial modifier of time

yesterday вчера(adverb of time)

The subordinate clause is brought in by conditional conjunction of ’ifесли’.

If I had done my test correctly yesterday Если бы я сделал мою контрольную работу правильно вчера

If I had done my test correctly yesterday Если я сделал бы мою контрольную работу вчера правильно’

First you see two Russian variants of a single English sentence. Though the English compound sentence keeps the traditional parts of sentence order in Russian ones you see free parts of sentence order especially of Russian form-building particle of ’бы’. The subordinate clause is brought in by the conditional conjunction of ’ifесли’.

Let’s link both principal and subordinate clauses into a compound sentence:

If I had done my test correctly yesterday I wouldn’t have to rewrite it today– Еслиясделалбымоюконтрольнуюработувчераправильно, мненепришлосьбыпереписыватьеёсегодня

In Russian the subordinate clause of unreal condition is always separated by the comma. Every time refer to Printed Appendix to ‘Real Russian’ Manual of ‘Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’, CD Methodical Instructions’, ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ and ‘Generalized Conclusion’ to collate your steps.

#24

If my friend knew the train arrival time he should meet me at the station’: the affirmative compound sentence of unreal condition; Subjunctive Mood Active

Pages 190 193 (4244)

Pay a particular attention to the imperfect form of the verb of ’to suggest предложить’ in the sentence because a single English primary verb form has two Ruusian meanings: perfect and imperfect.

’Sorry, my dear, Iwont let you refuse’ – usual apology and respectful address to the interlocutor. ’Sorry - извините’; ’dear - уважаемый’; ’to let позволять’; ’to refuse отказываться(imperfect reflexive primary form)’; ’youвам’. All given meanings are taken from published ’English-Russian Dictionary’ and are made agree according to Russian Grammar Rules.

Sorry, mydear, IwontletyourefuseИзвините, уважаемый, я не позволю вамотказаться

Because the interlocutor is masculine the Russian underlined adjective of ’dearуважаемый’ has such meaning.

Please, what do you prefer white coffee or tea?’ – usual friendly Disjunctive question. ’please - пожалуйста’; ’whatчто(relative pronoun)’; ’to prefer предпочитать(imperfect primary form)’; ’whiteбелый’; ’coffeeкофе’; ’orили(particle); ’tea – чай’; ’whitecoffeeкофесмолоком(stable word combination though there isn’t any allusion about the idea of ’milk - молоко’)’

Please, whatdoyoupreferwhitecoffeeortea? - Пожалуйста, что вы предпочитаете: кофе с молоком или чай?’

In my turnIm very glad to see you again too but first of all Idlike to suggest you a light breakfast. Sorry, my dear, I won’t let you refuse. Please, what do you prefer white coffeeor tea? – Всвоюочередьятакжеоченьрадвидетьвасснова, но, преждевсего,мнебыхотелосьпредложитьвамлёгкийзавтрак. Извините, уважаемый, я не позволювам отказаться. Пожалуйста, что вы предпочитаете: кофе смолоком иличай?”

2(b) “Thanks, Николай Владимирович. It was a tasty breakfast. Now let’s begin to talk over our business.”

thanks - спасибо

Thanks, НиколайВладимирович - Спасибо, НиколайВладимирович

tastyвкусный(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’breakfast завтрак(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun)’; ’tasty breakfast вкусныйзавтрак(stable word combination)’

It was a tasty breakfast Этобылвкусныйзавтрак

now - сейчас, теперь(adverb of time)’; ’to let давать(when calling to joint action)’; ’to begin начинать(imperfect primary form)’; ’to talk over обсуждать(imperfect primary form)’; ’ourнаши(1st person plural Nominative possessive pronoun)’; ’business дело(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)’

Now let’s begin to talk over our business Теперьдавайтеначнёмобсуждатьнашидела(noun plural)’

Pay attention to the Russian noun of ’дела’ plural meaning in the sentence. It depends of the inserting internal sense into the stable word combination what is known to the interlocutor.

Thanks, НиколайВладимирович. It was a tasty breakfast. Now let’s begin to talk over our business - Спасибо, НиколайВладимирович. Это был вкусный завтрак. Теперь давайте начнёмобсуждать наши дела

1(c) “I listen to you carefully

to listten to слушать(imperfect primary form)’; ’you вас(2nd person plural Genitive personal pronoun meaning)’; ’carefullyвнимательно(adverb of manner)’

I listen to you carefully - Яслушаю вас внимательно

2(c) “When last meeting we undersigned thecultural exchanging agreement and now let’sdiscuss somedetails and introduce clarity into it

when - когда, вовремя(adverb of time)’; ’lastпоследний(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’meetingвстреча(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)’; ’last meeting последняявстреча(stable word combination; adjective is coordinated by number, gender and case)’

WhenlastmeetingВо время последней встречи

we мы(1st person plural personal pronoun)’; ’to undersign подписывать(imperfect primary form)’; ’cultural культурный(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’exhanging обмен(verbal inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun)’; ’agreement соглашение(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)’

we undersigned thecultural exchanging agreementмыподписалисоглашениепокультурномуобмену

It’s necessary to take into account the features of English and Russian attributive expressions. To comprehend better refer to the corresponding Grammar section about Russian attributive expressions.

andи(copulative conjunction)’; ’now - сейчас, теперь(adverb of time)’; ’to let - давать, разрешать, позволять’; ’to discuss обсуждать(imperfect primary form)’; ’someнекоторый(indefinite pronoun like adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’detailподробность(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)’; ’to introduce представлять(imperfect primary form)’; ’clarityясность(inanimate uncountable feminine Nominative singular noun)’; ’intoв(spatial preposition)’; ’it – это(indefinite pronoun)’; ’to introduce clarity into… - вноситьясностьв…(stable word combination primary form)’

and now let’sdiscuss somedetails and introduce clarity into itитеперьдавайтеобсудимнекоторыедеталиивнесёмясностьвэто

When last meeting we undersigned thecultural exchanging agreement and now let’sdiscuss somedetails and introduce clarity into it - Вовремяпоследнейвстречимыподписалисоглашениепокультурномуобменуитеперьдавайтеобсудимнекоторыедеталиивнесёмясностьвэто

Keep in mind that in Russian are Present, Past and Future Tense omly.

1(d) “Just a moment, dear Mr.Smith. While I’m doing my preparatons you can look through a new book about our mutual achievments, cann’t you?”

justтолько(adverb of manner)’; ’moment момент(inanimate countable masculine Nominative singular noun), минута(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)’

Just a moment Однуминуту(stable word combination)’

dear уважаемый(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’Mr. – господин(address)’; ’dear Mr.Smith уважаемыйгосподинСмит(usual polite address)’

Just a moment, dear Mr.Smith Однуминуту, уважаемыйгосподинСмит

whileвтовремякак;пока(adverb of manner)’; ’to do делать(imperfect primary form)’; ’I’mdoing(English Present Continuous) – Яделаю(Russian Present Tense)’

While I’m doing Покаяделаю(literal translation)’

myмой(like adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’preparationприготовление(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)’; ’preparationsприготовления(plural)’; ’my preparations своиприготовления(stable word combination)’

my preparations своиприготовления(literal translation)’

Before it was mentioned about the idea of ’The Semantic Equality’ what goes that in every language the same thought is expressed by its own distinctive linguistics materials therefore not always is used the literal translation but it’s used the corresponding to that language stylistics:

While I’m doing my preparations Покаяготовлюсь

youвы(2nd person plural personal pronoun)’; ’can мочь(modal imperfect primary form)’; ’to look throughпросматривать(imperfect primary form)’; ’newновый(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’bookкнига(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)’; ’new bookноваякнига(stable word combination primary form)’

you can look through a new bookвыможетепросмотретьновуюкнигу

aboutо(causal preposition of Prepositional case government)’; ’ourнаш(1st person plural possessive pronoun)’; ’mutualвзаимный, общий(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary forms)’; ’achievementдостижение(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)’; ’achievements достижения(plural meaning)’

our mutual achievmentsнашиобщиедостижения(stable word combination primary form)’

about our mutual achievmentsонашихобщихдостижениях(coordinated of Prepositional case word combination)’

cann’tyou? – нетакли?(Dicjunctive question component)’

Just a moment, dear Mr.Smith. While I’m doing my preparatons you can look through a new book about our mutual achievments, cann’t you? –Однуминуту,уважаемыйгосподинСмит.Пока яготовлюсь, вы можете просмотреть новуюкнигу онаших общих достижениях, не так ли?”

2(d) “Oh, yes! I seeit’s an edition de luxe and contents the wonderfulphotos expecially of animate nature. Ithink, НиколайВладимирович, it’s necessary todistribute those books amongpeople as much as possible

ohо(interjection)’; ’yesда(confirmation)’

Oh, yes! - О, да!’

to see видеть(imperfect primary form)’

I see Явижу(parenthetic words)’

it’s – это(есть){mind in Russian Present Tense form meaning of the link-verb of ’to be’ is omitted}’; ’editionde luxeшикарноеиздание(stable word combination primary form; adjective ’de luxe - шикарный’ is coordinated of a noun)’

it’s an edition de luxe этошикарноеиздание

Oh,yes! I see it’s an edition de luxe - О, да! Я вижу, чтоэто шикарноеиздание

andи(copulative conjunction)’; ’to content содержать(imperfect primary form)’; ’wonderful великолепный(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’photoфотография(inanimate countable feminine Nominative noun)’; ’especially особенно(adverb of manner)’; ’ofо(specifying preposition)’; ’animateживой(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’; ’natureприрода(inanimate feminine Nominative singular noun)’

animate nature живаяприрода(stable word combination primary form; adjective ’animate -живой’ is coordinated of a noun)’

and contents the wonderfulphotos expecially of animate natureи содержит великолепные фотографии, особенно о живой природе

Oh, yes! I seeit’s an edition de luxe and contents the wonderfulphotos expecially of animate nature – О, да! Я вижу, что это шикарноеизданиеи содержит великолепные фотографии, особенно о живой природе

to think думать(imperfect primary form)’

Ithink, Николай ВладимировичЯ думаю, Николай Владимирович(parenthetic words)’

it’s necessary необходимо(impersonal sentence)’

Ithink, Николай Владимирович, it’snecessaryЯ думаю, Николай Владимирович, необходимо

to distribute распределять(imperfect primary form)’; ’those те(demonstrative pronoun)’; ’bookкнига(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)’; ’booksкниги(plural noun)’

to distribute those books распределитьтекниги(stable word combination)’

Ithink, Николай Владимирович, it’snecessarytodistributethosebooksЯ думаю, Николай Владимирович, необходимо распределить те книги

amongсреди(adverb)’; ’peopleлюди(there is used as plural primary form)’

among people средилюдей(coordinated stable word combination)’

Ithink, НиколайВладимирович, it’s necessary todistribute those books amongpeople Ядумаю, НиколайВладимирович, необходимораспределитьтекнигисредилюдей

as much as(stable word combination as adverb of time) - насколько’; ’possible возможный(adjective masculine Nominative singular primary form)’

as much as possible наскольковозможно

Pay attention to the Russian adjective’s short form of ’possible возможно’(ask CDEnglish-Russuan Dictionary’)

Ithink, НиколайВладимирович, it’s necessary todistribute those books amongpeople as much as possible Ядумаю, НиколайВладимирович, необходимораспределитьтекнигисредилюдейнаскольковозможно

Oh, yes! I seeit’s an edition de luxe and contents the wonderfulphotos expecially of animate nature. Ithink, НиколайВладимирович, it’s necessary todistribute those books amongpeople as much as possible nature – О, да! Я вижу, что это шикарноеизданиеи содержит великолепные фотографии, особенно о живой природе. Я думаю, Николай Владимирович, необходимо распределить те книги среди людей насколько возможно.”

1(e) “I’m satisfied by your opinion very much, Mr.Smith. It’s a feasible task and we’ll do it together.”

tosatisfyудовлетворять(imperfect primary form)’; ’satisfiedудовлетворённый(Past perfect masculine Nominative singular participle primary form)’; ’удовлетворён(Past perfect masculine Nominative singular participle short form)’; ’by – Instrumental case government preposition’; ’yourвашим(Instrumental case possessive pronoun meaning)’; ’opinionмнение(inanimate countable neuter Nominative singular noun)’; ’to be satisfied – verbal word combination of person’s condition primary form’; ’veryочень(adverb of manner)’; ’muchмного(indefinite numeral)’; ’very much оченьмного (stable adverbial word combination)’

I’m satisfied by your opinion very much, Mr.Smith – Яоченьудовлетворёнвашиммнением, господинСмит

feasible выполнимый(adjective primary form)’; ’task задача(inanimate countable feminine Nominative singular noun)’

feasible task выполнимаязадача(stable word combination primary form)’

to be a feasible task – verbal stable word combination of an object’s condition’

It’safeasibletaskЭто (есть) выполнимая задача

Mind about Russian conventional rule when the Russian equivalent of existing link-verb of ’to be’ 3rd person Present Tense meaning of ’is’ is omitted.

and и(copulative conjunction)’; ’weмы(1st person plural personal pronoun)’; ’to do делать(imperfect primary form)’; ’itэто(indefinite pronoun)’; ’togetherвместе(adverb of manner)’

and we’ll do it together(Future Tense) – имысделаемэтовместе

I’m satisfied by your opinion very much, Mr.Smith. It’s a feasible task and we’ll do it together – Яоченьудовлетворёнвашиммнением, господинСмит.Этовыполнимая задача и мы сделаем это вместе

2(e) “НиколайВладимирович, I’d like to suggest to bring in an essential amendment to our agreement. It’s concerned of agreement’s time accomplishment.”

НиколайВладимирович’ is an application

I’d like =I would like’. It’s a stable polite English expression which corresponds to the Russian Subjunctive Mood phrase of ’Мнебыхотелось’. That phrase ought to learn by heart because as a rule it is used at every step.

I’dlikeмне быхотелось

Николай Владимирович, I’dlikeНиколай Владимирович, мне бы хотелось

PREFACE

Dear Ladies & Gentlemen!

You are welcome to learn Russian language. Being suggested you Comparative Grammar Method isn’t new but well-forgotten old one. The better you know your Mother tongue the easier and quicker you’ll master any foreign language. You can make sure independently further.

All Grammar materials are presented like two printed parts and three recorded on CD ones. They are the following:

  • Printed ‘Real Russian’ Manual contains the main Russian Grammar materials where you can orient by ‘Table of Contents’ using

  • Being before your eyes printed ‘Appendix’ to ‘Real Russian’ Manual is an interim ‘English-Russian Dictionary’. After ‘PREFACE’ with ‘Analysing Guide’ follows ‘The Methodical Instructions Table of Contents’ ‘The Generalized Conclusion’ with ‘Parenthetic Words’ and ‘Paginal Words Address’. The last six pages (A F) is ‘Touch Typing Method’ Instructions

  • Recorded on CD 560 pages volume ‘The Methodical Instructions’ contain like the Patterns much detailed Russian Grammar information

  • Recorded on CD 4,028 pages volume ‘English-Russian Dictionary’ contains of English words Russian equivalents and gives you a full measured information about each entry.

For your part you are to provide yourself with pen, felt pens, writing-books and Dictaphone. Your computer is to be equipped with a Russian version program because it’s very important to master ‘Touch Typing Method’ to type both in English and in Russian.

The Comparative Grammar Method of any foreign language learning foresees translation everything from your Mother tongue into learning one only. Don’t worry the reverse action will be like a walk along the way paved by you personally. The Comparative Grammar Method of any foreign language learning works out the independence of any Grammar task solving and allows to progress independently in future.

Your writing speech must be literate. You can control yourself independently and compare your oral and writing speech level. It’s recommended gradually to rewrite ‘Practical Analysed English Instanced’ from ‘Real Russian’ Manual (p.1323) with given explanations. It helps you to apprehend any studying Grammar structure better and at last as a whole unit.

Observe and follow to all given instructions. Remember everything must operate like clockwork for only an aim that is to compile a correct sentence as a finished thought expression.

It’s impossible to remember a plenty of sentences by heart for all life cases. ’The Methodical Instructions’ ‘Russian Speech Practical Forming Way’ section will introduce the various every day life short stories and teach you to translate everything from English into Russian. You can be able to translate what you need but not what you are pressed on. Further it allows to use your knowledge at your own discretion.

I’m not going to extol introduced work. Only the learners and nobody has a right to value one or another introduced materials and to put a corresponding mark. I’d like to wish you a good success.

The Author

ANALYSING GUIDE

When using our Mother tongue against our will we speak, read, write and perceive the speech automatically but simultaneously observing our Mother tongue Grammar rules and sometimes not remembering them. It’s a result of many years cultivated practice. Beginning to learn any foreign language to speak, read, write and perceive unknown speech correctly we are to observe the Grammar Rules of learning one. ‘Analysing Guide’ foresees of each English sentence analysis to determine what kind of Russian linguistic materials you can use to have only a final correct result. But it doesn’t mean that we’ll refer to ‘Analysing Guide’ constantly. Gradually as to be peculiar for human we begin to refer to ‘Analysing Guide’ more less and less completing our actions to the automatism. Simply that way allows to master given extensive grammar materials quickly and qualitatively but having spent considerably more less time:

  • First by referring to the Manual of ‘Real Russian’ page: 1323 (‘Interrogative sentences’); 14 – 15 (‘Imperative Mood’); 1516 (‘Modal Verb’); 1617 (‘Perfect Tenses’); 1718 (‘Sequence of Tenses’); 1820 (‘Subjunctive Mood’); 2023 (‘Suppositional Mood’) you can faultlessly define the English sentence type

  • By using ‘TheGeneralizedConclusion’ define forming parts of a concrete sentence taking into account each part of sentence can be expressed by only a word, by a word combination or by a whole sentence

  • By using ‘The MethodicalInstructions Table ofContents’ page 7 define English and Russian Verb Tense Forms (Active) and page 25English and Russian Verb Tense Forms (Passive) Correspondence

  • Consider each part of sentence separately having rewritten the separate English words. As a structural Pattern you can take any instance introduced in ‘The MethodicalInstructions

  • By using ‘Paginal wordsaddress’ you can easy find the sought for word in ‘The English-RussianDictionary’ and then choose the necessary meaning simultaneously having made the corresponding concordance both between the separate words in the word combinations if they are and between the parts of sentence

  • When any question about concrete thought expression you can always get an answer by using introduced in ‘The MethodicalInstructions‘ through ‘The MethodicalInstructions Table ofContents’ a concrete grammar position

THE METHODICAL INSTRUCTIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item

Page

Introductory Course

1 – 2

The stress in Russian word

2

The General Russian Word Reading Rules

2 – 3

Pairs of Voiced and Voiceless Consonant Sounds Alternation

3 – 4

 

4 – 5

§ English and RussianVerb Conjugation Ratio §

524

   

English and Russian Verb Tense Forms (Active) Correspondence

7

   

§ Conjugation §

 

Russian Present Tense Active

8

Russian Past Tense Active

8 – 10

Russian Future Tense Active

10

   

§ The Russian Present and Past Participles (Active and Passive)§

 

> The Russian Present Participle Active The Russian Present Participle Passive The Russian Past Participle ActiveImperfect The Russian Past Participle ActivePerfect The Russian Past Participle Passive The Russian Past Participle Passive Short Form English and Russian Verb Tense Forms (Passive) Correspondence Russian AdjectivesComparative Degree Russian AdjectivesSuperlative Degree Four ways of AgeExpression in Russian Special Questions Special Questions Special Questions Special Questions The Russian peculiar abstract Possessive Pronoun of ‘свой’ The simple Affirmative sentence. Active Voice The simple Affirmative sentence. Passive Voice The Russian Reflexive Verb Nominal Word Combinations The English Noun + Noun Combination and its Russian equivalent The Verbal Word Combinations Simultaneous Actions Expression in Russian Unreal Condition The English Present Subjunctive Mood primary form and its Russian correspondence The English Past Subjunctive Mood primary form and its Russian correspondence NominalCompound Predicate in Subjunctive Conditional clause Active Verbal Predicate in Subjunctive Conditional clause (Active) Verbal Predicate in Subjunctive Conditional clause (Passive) NominalCompound Predicate in Subjunctive Conditional clause (Passive)Modal verbs of ‘could’ and ‘might’ as Subjunctive expression Unreal Comparison The AgeExpression in Russian Subjunctive Mood People personal introducing expression in Russian Short analysed narrative story Next short analysed narrative story STATUE OF LIBERTY SAINT PETERSBURG THE HERMITAGE < (fragments)

507 – 560

.

GENERALIZED CONCLUSION”

In our speech we express the real/unreal, conditional, presumable, possible or impossible, compulsory or needless, probable or improbable etc. actions(object’s or person’s condition) by composing an impersonal, simple, complex or compound sentences(affirmative, negative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative ones).

The cases’ relations

Nominative – name only

Genitive – part of the whole; absence, lack; belonging(’of, from, for’)

Dative – action’s address(’to’)

Accusative – action’s transition to the object or person

Instrumental – action’s instrument(’by, with’)

Prepositional – action’s revealing within, inside or on the surface of the object or person; what’s spoken about(’on, in, by, about, at etc.’)

+

Theverb’s signs (and its special forms)

  1. aspect

  2. reflection

  3. voice

  4. conjugation

  5. tense

  6. transition

  7. mood

The sentence’s words order

subject(Who?, What?) – predicate(What does?, Who does?, Who did?, What did?, What will do?, Who will do?, Who has done?, What has done?, What can do?, Whocan do?...” and so on for the Active Voice. “What is done?, Who is done?, What was done?, Who was done?, What’ll be done?, Who’ll be done?, What has been done?, Who has been done?, What can be done?, Who can be done?... and so on for the Passive Voice) – directobject(What?, Who {I see}?) – indirectobject(questions of G., D., I., P cases) – attribute(What?, Whose?) – adverbialmodifierofplace(Where?, Where to?, Where from?), manner(How?), cause(Why?), effect(Towhateffect?), condition(In what condition?), concession(In spite of what?), time(When?, How long?, Till when?, Since when?..)

The way of sentence composing

wordwordcombinationsubordinate clause

PARENTHETICAL WORDS

1. The various degree of confidence

а) more confidence degree

of courseконечноразумеется

Its sureбесспорно

doubtlessнесомненно

without doubt;beyond doubtбезсомнения

of course;there is no doubt безусловно

really, indeedдействительно

b) less confidencedegreesupposition

It seems thatкажется

probablyвероятно

obviously;apparently;manifestly;evidentlyочевидно

possibly;perhapsвозможно

may;I think that – пожалуй

2. The various feelings

fortunately;luckily;as luck would have it ксчастью

to everyone’s joy – кобщейрадости

unfortunatelyк несчастью, к сожалению

toone’ssurpriseк удивлению

3. The source of report (who belongs the report to)

according to somebody’s reportпосообщениюкого-либо

according to somebodys wordsпословамкого-либо

according to somebodys opinionпомнениюкого-либо

4. The thoughts’ order and their connection

atfirstво-первых

atsecond во-вторых

atthirdв-третьих

at lastнаконец

therefore, consequently, hencecледовательно

so well, well thenзначит

so, thusитак

on the contraryнапротив, наоборот

and vice versa – инаоборот

for exampleнапример

thus такимобразом; so – так

5. remarks of thoughts’ accounting ways

in a wordоднимсловом

in other wordsиначеговоря

better to sayлучшесказать

THE INTRODUCTORY INTERROGATIVE WORDS

to thinkдумать

to supposeполагать

tobelieve / bi"li:v / – доверять, придавать большое значение

Do you think?; What do you think? –Кактыдумаешь? (Каквы думаете?)

Doyoubelieve?; Doyousuppose? – Как ты полагаешь? (Как выполагаете?)

APPENDIX OF THE CD PAGINAL WORDS ADDRESS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Each part of speech alphabetical index will help you for quick and correct searching of the necessary English word and its Russian equivalent. First of all CD is to be loaded into computer’s compartment. Let’s consider an instance:

Needs to find out the verb of ’tonarrow’. Refer to the Section ’The Verbs’, the letter of ’N’ is located on p.p. 14 – 15 where you see page number for the verb of ’tonarrow’on CD (1163 – 1164):

  • Press functional key F5 on the keyboard. You’ll get an inquiry

  • Enter page number to the corresponding window and confirm it by key of ’Enter’ pressing

  • As a result you’ll get a necessary word and its Russian equivalents that is all Russian verb meanings

If needs to find out the word of other part of speech repeat above given steps.

THE VERBS

(1 – 29)

A: 1

B: 1 – 3

C: 3 – 5

D:5 – 6

E: 6 – 7

F: 7 – 8

G: 8 – 9

H: 9 – 10

I: 10 – 11

J: 11 – 12

K: 12

L: 12 – 13

M: 13 – 14

N: 14 – 15

O: 15 – 16

P: 16 – 18

Q: 18

R: 18 – 19

S: 19 – 25

T: 25 – 26

U: 26 – 27

V: 27

W: 27 – 29

X: 29

   

Y: 29

Z: 29

   

THE NOUNS

(29 – 89)

A: 29 – 33

B: 33 – 37

C: 37 – 43

D: 43 – 46

E: 46 – 48

F: 48 – 51

G: 51 – 53

H: 53 – 55

I: 55 – 57

J: 57 – 58

K: 58

L: 58 – 60

M: 60 – 63

N: 63 – 64

O: 64 – 65

P: 65 – 70

Q: 70

R: 70 – 73

S: 74 – 81

T: 81 – 85

U: 85

V: 85 – 86

W: 86 – 89

X: 89

   

Y: 89

Z: 89

   

THE ADJECTIVES

(89 – 135)

A: 89 – 91

B: 91 – 93

C: 93 – 97

D: 97 – 99

E: 99 – 101

F: 101 – 104

G: 104 – 105

H: 105 – 107

I: 107 – 112

J: 112 – 113

K: 113

L: 113 – 115

M: 115 – 116

N: 116 – 117

O: 117 – 119

P: 119 – 122

Q: 122

R: 122 – 124

S: 124 – 129

T: 129 – 130

U: 130 – 133

V: 133

W: 133 – 134

X

   

Y: 134

Z: 135

   

THE NUMERALS

( 135 – 136 )

The Cardinal Numerals: 135

The Ordinal Numerals: 135 – 136

THE PRONOUNS

( 136 – 137 )

1. The Personal pronouns: 136

2. The Reflexive pronoun: 136

3. The Interrogative and Relative pronouns: 136

4. The Indefinite pronouns: 136

5. The Negative pronouns: 136

6. The Possessive pronouns: 136

7. The Demonstrative pronouns: 136

8. The Attributive pronouns: 137

THE ADVERBS

( 137 – 143 )

A: 137

B: 137

C:138

D: 138

E: 138

F: 138 – 139

G: 139

H: 139

I: 139

J: 139

K: 140

L: 140

M: 140

N: 140

O: 140 – 141

P: 141

Q: 141

R: 141

S: 141 – 142

T: 142 – 143

U: 143

V: 143

W: 143

X

   

Y: 143

Z

   

THE INTERJECTION

(143 – 144)

TOUCH TYPING METHOD

(A-F)

THE VERBS

A

##

Verb

Synonym(s)

Page

1

to abandon

Also ’to leave’, ’to forsake’, ’to desert’

1-3

24

to award

Also ’to reward’, ’to decorate’, ’to confer’, ’to endow’

43-45

25

to bare oneself (Ref)

Also ’to uncover oneself’

45-46

117

to buy

Also: ’to purchase’

194-196

C

118

to call oneself (Ref)

Also’to name oneself’

196-198

195

’to cut one’s hair (Ref)

Also ’to trim one’s hair’, ’to have a haircut’

333-335

D

196

dare

Also: ’to make bold/free’

335-336

259

to dye

Also ’to tinture’, ’to paint’

453-456

E

260

to eat

Also ’to have’, ’to take’

456-457

321

to exptol

Also ‘to praise highly’

573-575

F

322

to face

-

575-576

378

to fuss

Also ’to adhere’, ’to stick to’, ’to come alongside’, ’to put in to’, ’to bother’, ’to pester’

678-679

G

379

to gab

Also ’to stir’, ’to dangle’, ’to chatter’, ’to jabber’, ’to natter’, ’to twaddle’, ’to rubbish’, ’to drivel’

679-681

420

to gun

Also ’to shoot’, ’to fire’, ’to cadge’

749-752

H

421

to hack

Also ’to shred’

752-754

467

to hurt

Also ’to wound smb’s feelings’

834-836

I

468

to ice

Also ’to anaesthetize’

836-838

521

to itch (Ref)

Also ’to scratch oneself’

940-941

J

522

to jam

Also ’to compress’, ’to squeeze’, ’to clench’

941-944

531

to justify oneself

Also ’to make excuses’, ’to put oneself right’, ’to come true’

956-957

K

532

to keen over

Also ’to lament(for, over)’, ’to bewail’

957-959

545

to know

Also ’to be aquainted’, ’to be aware’

980-982

L

546

to labour (Ref)

Also ’to toil’

982-983

599

to lumber

Also ’to rumble’

1077-1078

M

600

to maintain

Also ‘to observe’, ‘to keep’

1078-1079

642

to mumble

Also: ‘to mutter’

1156-1157

N

643

to name

Also ’to call’

1157-1159

655

to nut

Also ’to think over’, ’to turn over in one’s mind’, ’to ponder’

1178-1180

O

656

to object

Also ’to retort’, ’to return’, ’to rejoin’, ’to object’, ’to raise an objection’, ’to mind’

1180-1182

694

to own

Also ’to have’, ’to possess’, ’to be master’, ’to be in possession’, ’to hold’, ’to be going to’, ’to control’

1257-1259

P

695

to pace

Also ’to walk’, ’to step(over, across)’, ’to stride’

1259-1260

784

to puzzle

Also ’to perplex’, ’to take back’

1436-1438

Q

785

to quarrel with (Ref)

Also ’to embroil with’, ’to cause’, ’to fall out with’

1438-1439

789

to quiet

Also ’to calm’, ’to soothe’, ’to assuage’, ’to reassure’, ’to set at rest’

1446-1448

R

790

to race (Ref)

Also ’to compete’, ’to contend’

1448-1450

871

to rustle

-

1599-1600

S

872

to sacrifice

Also ’to endow with’, ’to make a donation’, ’to give up to’, ’to offer to’, ’to offer up to’

1600-1603

1117

to symbolize

-

2046-2047

T

1118

to take

Also ’to shoulder’, ’to borrow’, ’to hire’, ’to rent’, ’to book’

2047-2049

1203

to turn over (Ref)

Also ’to turn inside out’, ’to turn upside-down’

2199-2200

U

1204

to unbend (Ref)

Also ’to soften’, ’to become soft’, ’to grow softer’, ’to relax’, ’to relent’

2200-2202

1237

to utilize

Also ’to use’, ’to make the most of’, ’to make good use’

2269-2271

V

1238

to vacate

Also ’to abolish’, ’to cancel’

2271-2273

1248

to vote for

Also ’to put to the vote’, ’to vote on’

2289-2291

W

1250

to wait for

Also ’to expect’, ’to await’

2291-2293

1310

to write

-

2399-2400

X

1311

to X-ray

Also ’to be translucent’, ’to appear through’

2400-2403

Y

1312

to yellow

Also ’to turn yellow’

2403-2404

1313

to yield

Also ’to let smb. have smth.’, ’to give in’, ’to give way’, ’to concede’, ’to be inferior to in’, ’to abate’, ’to take off’, ’to let have for’

2404-2406

Z

1314

to zinc(zinck)

Also ’to galvanize’

2406-2409

1315

to zone

Also ’to gird’, ’to girdle’, ’to surround’, ’to encircle’

2409-2411

THE NOUNS A

#

Noun

Synonym(s)

Page

1316

ABC (alphabet)

-

2411

1522

axis

Also ’axle’, ’spindle’, ’pin’

2444

1523

baby

Also ’my little one’

2444-2445

1781

bypass

Also ’round’, ’roundabout way’, ’evasion’, ’circumvention’

2487

C

1782

cab

Also ’taxi’

2487

2095

cutting clothes

-

2539

D

2096

dagger

Also ’poniard’

2540

2293

dynasty

-

2572

E

2294

eagle

-

2572

2404

eyelid

 

2590

F

2405

fabrication

Also ’falsification’, ’forgery’, ’imitation’, ’counterfeit’, ’fake’

2590

2534

fuss

Also ’bustle’, ’vanity’

2611-2612

G

2535

gab

Also ’talk’, ’charter’, ’jabber’, ’twaddle’, ’tittle-tattle’

2612

2642

gun

Also: ‘instrument’, ‘implement’, ‘tool’

2629

H

2643

habit

-

2629-2630

2755

hyacinth

-

2648

I

2756

ice

-

2648

2882

item

Also ’point’, ’station’, ’paragraph’

2669

J

2883

jab

Also ’kick’

2669

2928

juxtaposition

Also ’comparison’, ’confrontation’

2676

K

2929

kangaroo

-

2676

2559

knuckle

Also: ‘joint’, ‘articulation’

2681

L

2960

label

Also ’edict’, ’lag’

2681

3070

lynx

 

2699

M

3071

madam

Also ’lady’, ’Mrs.’, ’Miss.’, ’Mme.’, ’Mlle.’, ’Signora’ ’Signorina’, ’Frau’

2699

3225

myth

-

2725

3226

nail

Also ’fingernail’, ’thumbnail’, ’toe-nail’

2725

3282

nut

Also ’nut-tree’

2734

O

3283

oak

-

2734

3359

oyster

-

2747

3360

pace

Also ’step’, ’stride’, ’tread’, ’footsteps’

2747

3599

pursuit

Also ’chase’, ’persecution’, ’victimization’, ’pursuance’

2786

Q

3600

quadrate

Also ’square’

2786

3613

quote

Also ’citation’

2788

R

3614

rabbit

-

2789

3820

Russian language

-

2822-2823

S

3821

sabotage

-

2823

4237

system

-

2891

T

4238

tab

Also ’peg’, ’rack’, ’stand’, ’hall-stand’, ’cloak-room’

2891

4469

tyre

Also ’splint’, ’bus-bar’

2929-2930

U

4470

ubiquity

-

2930

4493

utterance

Also ’pronouncing’

2933-2934

V

4494

vacancy

-

2934

4554

voter

Also ’elector’

2943-2944

W

4555

wade

Also ’ford’

2944

4695

wrong

Also ’error’, ’delusion’

2966-2967

X

4696

X

Also ’cross’

2967

4697

Xerox

-

2967

Y

4698

yacht

-

2967

4710

youth

Also ’young people’

2969

Z

4711

zander

-

2969

4717

zoo

Also ’zoological gardens’

2970

THE ADJECTIVES

A

4718

abhorrent

Also ’hated’, ’hateful’

2970-2971

4825

azure

Also ’blue’, ’pale-blue’, ’sky-blue’, ’idealized’

3021

4826

baby

Also ’child’s’, ’children’s’, ’childish’, ’infantile’, ’puerile’, ’childlike’

3021-3022

4905

buttery

Also ’oily’

3057

C

4906

cadaverous

Also ’putrid’

3057-3058

5128

cute

Also ’quick-witted’, ’sharp’, ’bright’

3157

D

5129

dabby

Also ’damp’, ’raw’, ’uncooked’, ’half-done’, ’soggy’, ’unripe’, ’green’

3157-3158

5256

Dutch

-

3215

E

5257

each

Also ’every’

3215

5347

extreme

Also ’extraordinary’

3255

F

5348

facetious

Also ’witty’, ’humorous’, ’playful’, ’jocular’, ’flippant’

3256

5488

fuzzy

Also ’downy’, ’fluffy’

3316

G

5489

gabby

Also ’talkative’, ’loquacious’

3316-3317

5566

guttural

Also ’laryngeal’

3352

H

5567

habile

Also ’skillful’, ’clever’

3352-3353

5657

husky

Also ’hoarse’

3392-3393

I

5658

icy

Also ’glacial’, ’ice-cold’, ’chilling’

3393

5940

itinerary

Also ’travelling’

3507

J

5941

jagged

Also ’drunk’, ’tipsy’, ’intoxicated’, ’tight’

3507-3508

5959

juvenile

Also ’youthful’

3515

K

5960

keen

Also ’perspicacious’, ’acute’, ’shrewd’, ’astute’

3515

5968

knockabout

Also ’vagrant’, ’strolling’

3519-3520

L

5969

labial

Also ’lip’

3520

6059

lyric

Also ’lyrical’

3558

M

6060

machinal

Also ’power-driven’, ’mechanical’

3558-3559

6158

mythical

Also ’mythological’

 

6159

nameless

Also ’anonymous’, ’unnamed’

3599-3600

6226

nutritious

Also ’nourishing’, ’feeding’

3624-3625

O

6227

oaken

Also ’coarse’, ’thick’, ’hard’

3625

6299

own

Also ’private’

3654-3655

6300

pabular

Also ’foodstuffs’, ’eatables’

3655

6488

pusillanimous

Also ’cowardly’, ’faint-hearted’, ’craven’, ’poor-spirited’

3730

Q

6489

quadrate

Also ’square’

3730

6494

quotidian

Also ’banal’, ’commonplace’, ’hackneyed’, ’trite’, ’trivial’

3732

R

6495

rackety

Also ’disorderly’, ’confused’, ’untidy’, ’slovenly’, ’tumultuary’

3732-3733

6571

rusty

-

3761

6572

sable

Also ’sombre’, ’gloomy’, ’dark’, ’dismal’, ’dreary’, ’tenebrous’

3762

6826

systematical

Also ’methodical’

3864-3865

T

6827

taboo

Also ’forbidden’

3865

6921

twirled

-

3902-3903

U

6921

ugly

Also ’misshapen’, ’deformed’, ’abnormal’

3903

7057

utmost

Also ’maximum’

3955

V

7058

vacant

Also ’disengaged’, ’unoccupied’

3955-3956

7096

vulturous

Also ’predatory’, ’raptorial’

3970

W

7097

wall

-

3970-3971

7147

wry

Also ’crooked’, ’curved’

3990-3991

Y

7148

yearly

Also ’annual’

3991

7153

youthful

Also ’young’

3993

Z

7154

zenithal

Also ’anti-aircraft’

3993

7156

zoological

Also ’brutish’, ’bestial’

3994

THE NUMERALS

THE CARDINAL NUMERALS

7157

one (1); some

-

3994

7158

two (2)

-

3994-3995

7159

from ’three (3)’ to ’ nineteen (19)’

-

3995

7160

from ’twenty (20)’ to ’forty (40)’

-

3995

7161

from ‘fifty (50)’ to ‘ninety (90)’

-

3995-3996

7162

one hundred

-

3996

7163

from ’one hundred (100)’ to ’nine hundred (900)’

-

3996

7164

one thousand (1,000)

-

3997

7165

a million (1,000,000)

-

3997

7166

a milliard(billion) (1,000,000,000)

-

3997

7167

a trillion (1,000,000,000,000)

-

3997

THE ORDINAL NUMERALS

7168

the first (1st)

-

3997-3998

7169

the second (2nd)

-

3998

7170

the third (3rd)

-

3998

7171

the fourth (4th)

-

3998

7172

the fifth (5th)

-

3998-3999

7173

the sixth (6th)

-

3999

7174

the seventh (7th)

-

3999

7175

the eighth (8th)

-

3999

7176

the ninth (9th)

-

3999

7177

the tenth (10th)

-

3999

7178

the eleventh (11th)

-

3999-4000

7179

the twelfth (12th)

-

4000

7180

the thirteenth (13th)

-

4000

7181

the fourteenth (14th)

-

4000

7182

the fifteenth (15th)

-

4000

7183

the sixteenth (16th)

-

4000-4001

7184

the seventeenth (17th)

-

4001

7185

the eighteenth (18th)

-

4001

7186

the nineteenth (19th)

-

4001

7187

the twentieth (20th)

-

4001

7188

the thirtieth (30th)

-

4001

7189

the fortieth (40th)

-

4001-4002

7190

the fiftieth (50th)

-

4002

7191

the sixtieth (60th )

-

4002

7192

the seventieth (70th)

-

4002

7193

the eightieth (80th)

-

4002

7194

the ninetieth (90th)

-

4002-4003

7195

the hundredth (100th)

-

4003

7196

the two-hundredth (200th)

-

4003

7197

the three-hundredth (300th)

-

4003

7198

the four-hundredth (400th)

-

4003

7199

the five-hundredth (500th)

-

4003-4004

7200

the six-hundredth (600th)

-

4004

7201

the seven-hundredth (700th)

-

4004

7202

the eight-hundredth (800th)

-

4004

7203

the nine-hundredth (900th)

-

4004

7204

the thousandth (1,000th)

-

4004-4005

7205

the millionth (1,000,000th)

-

4005

7206

the milliardth(1,000,000,000th)

-

4005

7207

Russian complex cardinal numerals forming way

-

4005-4006

7208

Russian complex ordinal numerals forming way

-

4006-4007

THE PRONOUNS

1. The Personal pronouns

7209

I, you(familiar), he, she, it, we, you(official), they

-

4007

7210

Reading rules

-

4007-4008

2. The Reflexive pronoun

7211

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

-

4008

3. The Interrogative and Relative pronouns

7212

who?(who)

-

4009

7213

what?(what)

-

4009

7214

what?(what)

 

4009

7215

whose?(whose)

-

4010

7216

how many?(how much?)

-

4010

7217

how many(how much)

-

4010

7218

who?, which?

-

4010

7219

who, which

-

4010-4011

4. The Indefinite pronouns

7220

someone, anyone, one, a certain

-

4011

7221

something, anything

-

4011

7222

several, some, any, a few

-

4011

7223

somebody, someone

-

4012

7224

somebody, anybody, some people, any people

-

4012

7225

some, any, some or two, a couple

-

4012

7226

somebody’s, someone’s, anyone’s

-

4012-4013

5. The Negative pronouns

7227

nobody(anybody), no one

-

4013

7228

nothing

-

4013

7229

there is nobody(anybody) to..., there is no one to...

-

4014

7230

there is nothing to...

-

4014

7231

no (...whatever), none (whatever)

-

4014

7232

nobody’s, no one’s

-

4014

7233

none at all, no...at all, not any...at all

-

4014

6. The Possessive pronouns

7234

my(mine)

-

4014-4015

7235

your(yours) (Singular)

-

4015

7236

our(ours)

-

4015

7237

your(yours) (Plural)

-

4015-4016

7238

my(mine), your(yours), our(ours), your(yours)

-

4016

7. The Demonstrative pronouns

7239

that; those

 

4016

7240

this; it; these

 

4016

7241

such

 

4016-4017

7242

so much; so many

 

4017

8. The Attributive pronouns

7243

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself

-

4017

7244

ourselves, yourselves, themselves

-

4017

7245

every

-

4018

7246

any

-

4018

7247

the very, the same as, the most

-

4018

7248

some, different, other

-

4018

7249

others

-

4018-4019

7250

other, another, different, another thing, something else

-

4019

7251

others

-

4019

7252

any, every

-

4019

7253

all kinds of

-

4019

7254

all, the whole of

-

4019-4020

THE ADVERBS

A

7255

aboard

-

4020

7283

audibly

-

4020

B

7284

back

-

4020

7296

by

-

4021

C

7297

carefully

-

4021

7317

crossly

-

4021

D

7318

darkly

-

4021

7332

duly

-

4021

E

7333

easily

-

4021

7345

extremely

-

4022

F

7346

faintly

-

4022

7363

furtively

-

4022

G

7364

galore

-

4022

7369

guardedly

-

4022

H

7370

hastily

-

4022

7389

humanly

-

4022

I

7390

ill

-

4022

7399

insensibly

-

4023

J

7400

just

 

4023

7401

justly

 

4023

K

7402

knowingly

 

4023

L

7403

last

-

4023

7417

luckily

-

4023

M

7418

mainly

-

4023

7427

much

-

4023

7428

naturally

-

4023

7441

nowise

-

4023

O

7442

occasionally

-

4024

7456

overnight

-

4024

7457

parcel

-

4024

7487

purposely

-

4024

Q

7488

questionless

-

4024

7491

quite

-

4024

R

7492

rationally

-

4024

7504

roundly

-

4025

7505

scarcely

-

4025

7538

sweetly

-

4025

T

7539

tantivy

-

4025

7573

truly

-

4026

U

7574

uncommonly

-

4026

7581

utterly

-

4026

V

7582

vastly

-

4026

7587

virtually

-

4026

W

7588

way behind

-

4026

7610

wrong

-

4027

Y

7611

yes

-

4027

7613

yonder

-

4027

THE INTERJECTION

surprise, pain, terror expression

4027

question, hope, surprise, cherish hopes for listener’s consent expression

4027

motive, warning

4027

encouragement, also with tinge of reproach

4027

as a question: expectation

4027

surprising

4027

surprising with a tinge of dissatisfaction

4027

surprising with a tinge of impatience

4027

exclamation

4027

consent, concession, conciliation, easing, regret

4028

Thank you for time and attention

‘ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОЕ ЕДИНСТВО’

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Внимание: в скобках указаны аналогичные разделы английской грамматики

Звуки английского языка и их транскрипция

3 – 5

Английский алфавит, произношение английских согласных

5 – 7

Правила чтения гласных в открытом слоге

7

Правила чтения гласных в закрытом слоге

7 – 9

Правила чтения гласных в сочетании с буквой “R” (два варианта)

9 – 10

Правила чтения различных сочетаний гласных и согласных

10 – 14

Общий обзор русской грамматики

14 – 30

Падежи (склонение)

21 – 22

§ Обобщённый вывод §

17

Морфология. Части речи  

Существительное

30 – 31 (47 – 52)

Прилагательное

31 (52 – 54)

Числительное

31 (54 – 58)

Местоимение

31 – 32 (58 – 64)

Глагол (наклонение, причастие, деепричастие, герундий)

32-33 (78-81; 84-88)

Наречие

33-34 (73 – 76)

Предлог

34-35 (64 – 70)

Союз

35-37 (70 – 72)

Частица, междометие

37-38 (72 – 73)

   

§ ОСНОВНОЙ КУРС. Вводная часть. Стилистика §

76 – 78

Синтаксис  

Словосочетание, виды словосочетаний

38

Предложение. Виды простых предложений. Сложное предложение.

39-46 (81 – 82)

Второстепенные члены предложения

82; 89

   

Спряжение основных вспомогательных английских глаголов ‘tobe’, ‘todo’, ‘tohave

 

Настоящее, Прошедшее, Будущее Неопределённое время, активный залог

90-94

Настоящее, Прошедшее, Будущее Неопределённое длящееся время, активный залог

114 –116

   

§ Образование страдательного залога в английском языке §

94 – 96

   

§ Простое предложение §

96 – 97

Настоящее, Прошедшее Неопределённое время, активный залог

97 – 101

Безличные предложения

101 – 102

Примеры употребления страдательного залога

102 – 105

Второстепенные члены предложения

105 – 114

Настоящее, Прошедшее Неопределённое длящееся время, страдательный залог

116 – 117

   

Повелительное наклонение

117 – 118

   

Виды вопросительных предложений

26-27; 46 (117 – 133)

Общие вопросы

26; 46 (116-122)

Специальные вопросы

26; 46 (123-130)

Альтернативные вопросы

26; 46 (130)

Разделительные вопросы

26-27; 46 (130-132)

Вводные вопросы

27; 46 (132-133)

Названия английских частей речи

30; 105; 109; 201

Модальные глаголы  

Выражение умения, способности, физической возможности…

135 – 137

Выражение предположения, основанного на неуверенности…

137 – 138

Выражение разрешения, обязанности, совета, запрещения и т.д.

138 – 139

Модальный эквивалент ‘tohaveto

139 – 140

Выражение предпочтительного выбора

140 – 141

Выражение предварительной договорённости или обязанности…

141

Выражение отношения обязательности, желательности действия…

141

Выражение ненужности(иногда даже бессмысленности) какого-то действия

141 – 142

   

Промежуточное обобщение

142 – 144

   

Свершённое время в английском языке

 

Настоящее, Прошедшее, Будущее свершённое время, активный залог

145 – 148

Настоящее, Прошедшее, Будущее свершённое длящееся время

148 – 149

Настоящее, Прошедшее, Будущее свершённое время, страдательный залог

149 – 150

Понятие ‘Сложноподчинённое предложение

150 – 151

Правила согласования времён

151 – 155

Сослагательное наклонение  

Начальная форма сослагательного наклонения

155 – 157

Выражение нереального условия

157 – 160

Выражение нереального желания

160 – 161

Выражение нереального сравнения

161 – 163

Выражение нереальной уступки

163 – 164

Выражение невыполнимого желания в восклицательных предложениях

164 – 165

Предположительное наклонение  

Основные способы выражения предположительного наклонения

165 – 169

   

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ ПО ПРАКТИЧЕСКОМУ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЮ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

169

   

Выражение подлежащего в английском языке

171 – 172

Выражение сказуемого в английском языке

 

Простое глагольное сказуемое

172

Сложное глагольное сказуемое

172 – 173

Составное именное сказуемое

173 – 175

Выражение нереального сравнения

175

Практические примеры на выражение сказуемого

175 – 178

Образование английских деепричатий совершенного вида

178 – 180

Второстепенные члены предложения

 

Прямое дополнение

180 – 182

Косвенное дополнение

182

Определение

182 – 184

Обстоятельство

 

Места

185 – 187

Времени и частотности

187 – 190

Образа действия

190 – 192

Уступки

193 – 194

Цели

194 – 196

Причины

196 – 198

Условия

198 – 200

Практические примеры с подробным грамматическим анализом

200 – 242

Пособие ‘Грамматическое единство’ используется в сочетании с Приложением ‘Методические указания’ аналогичного формата и содержащим необходимые дополнительные материалы, позволяющие усвоить грамматическую струтуру как родного русского, так и английского языка как единое целое, что в свою очередь вырабатывает умение быть самостоятельным при решении любых грамматических задач, т.к. с первых минут занятий всё нацелено на перевод только с родного языка на изучаемый с учётом строгих требований грамматики английского языка и в дальнейшем использовать английский язык по своему усмотрению, независимо от выбранного Вами направления активной трудовой деятельности.

‘Методические указания’

Оглавление

Вводная часть

3

Вводный курс

4– 6

Ударение

5

§ Основной курс §  

Соотношение значений спряжения русского и английского глагола

6 – 9; 14 – 15

Активное причастие настоящего времени

9 – 10; 15 – 16

Страдательное причастие настоящего времени

10 – 11; 16

Активное причастие прошедшего времени несовершенного вида

11 – 12; 16 – 17

Активное причастие прошедшего времени совершенного вида

12; 17

Страдательное причастие прошедшего времени

12 – 13; 17 – 18

Деепричастие

13 – 14; 18

Герундий

18

Повелительное наклонение

18 – 19

Примеры склонения русских существительных

19 – 21

Примеры склонения русских прилагательных

21 – 22

Примеры склонения русских числительных

22 – 25

Примеры склонения русских местоимений

25

Понятие о словосочетании

25 – 27

Понятие об анализе русского предложения

27 – 30

Понятие о русских атрибутивных выражениях

30 – 31

Практическая часть

 

Введение в перевод с русского языка на английский на примере короткого рассказа с постановкой всех видов вопросительных предложений

31 – 49

Формирование английских словосочетаний

 

Глагольные словосочетания

49 – 52

Деепричастный оборот

52 – 53

Причастный оборот

53 – 55

Именные словосочетания

55 – 58

Наречные словосочетания

58

Степени сравнения английских прилагательных и наречий

58 – 64

Формирование английских атрибутивных выражений

64 – 68

Модальность

 

Выражение умственной, физической возможности: ‘can’, ‘could

68 – 71

Эквивалент ‘to have to’

71 – 74

Эквивалент ‘had better’

74 – 75

Эквивалент ‘to be able to’

75 – 79

Модальные глаголы ‘may’, ‘might

79 – 82

Эквивалент ‘to be allowed’

82 – 85

Выражение предварительной договорённости или обязанности: ‘to be to’

85 – 90

Модальный глагол ‘must

90 – 97

Модальный глагол ‘ought to’

97 – 101

Вспомогательный глагол ‘shall’ в модальном значении

101 – 102

Модальный глагол ‘should

102 – 103

Вспомогательные глаголы ‘will’ и ‘would’ в модальном значении

103 – 108

Модальный глагол ‘need

108 – 109

Модальный глагол ‘dare

109

   

Придаточные предложения

 

1. придаточные подлежащные

110 – 116

2. придаточные предикативные

116 – 119

3. придаточные дополнительные

119 – 127

4. придаточные обстоятельственные

 

а) придаточные времени

127 – 130

б) придаточные места

130 – 132

в) придаточные причины

132 – 135

г) придаточные цели

135 – 139

д) придаточные условия

139 – 154

е) придаточные уступки

154 – 159

ж) придаточные следствия

159 – 161

з) придаточные сравнения

161 – 165

и) придаточныеобраз действия

165 – 169

5. придаточные определительные

169 – 174

Выражение русских активных причастий прошедшего времени в английском языке

 

несовершенного вида

174 – 178

совершенного вида

178 – 180

Основные предлоги управления падежами в английском языке

(отдельное Приложение)

В нашей речи мы выражаем реальные или нереальные, условные(реальные или нереальные), предположительные, возможные или невозможные, обязательные или ненужные, вероятные или неправдоподобные и т.д. действия(состояния) лица или предмета.

ОБОБЩЁННЫЙВЫВОД”

МОРФОЛОГИЯ”– признаки глагола и падежи для определения отношений между словами в словосочетаниях и

СИНТАКСИС”– общая схема формирования и порядка слов английского предложения:

“ОБЩЕЕ”

Падежисклонениясамостоятельныхчастейречи(существительного, прилагательного, числительного, местоимения ипричастия, поясняющего существительное/ называющего признак лица или предмета / по его действию)

1. Именительный (кто?, что?)

2. Родительный (кого?, чего?)

3. Дательный (кому?, чему?)

4. Винительный (кого?, что?)

5. Творительный (кем?, чем?)

6. Предложный (о ком?, о чём?)

Признаки глагола(и его особых форм: причастия и деепричастия)

1. Вид

2. Спряжение

3. Возвратность

4. Переходность

5. Время

6. Наклонение

7. Залог

Порядок слов в предложении

подлежащее (кто?, что?)---сказуемое(что делает?, кто делает?, кто сделал?, что сделал?, кто сделает?, что сделает?, кому делают?, чему делают?, кому сделали?, чему сделали?, кому сделают?, чему сделают?, каков предмет?(был, есть, будет), чей он?(был, есть, будет), где находится?(находился, будет находиться) предмет или лицо---дополнение(прямое: кого?, что?) или косвенное(кого?, чего?, кем?, чем?, кому?, чему?, о ком?, о чём?)---определение(какой?, чей?)---обстоятельства: образа действия(как?, каким образом?), места(где?, куда, откуда?), условия(при каком условии?), причины(почему), уступки(вопреки чему?), цели(зачем?, с какой целью?), времени(когда?, с каких пор?, до каких пор?, как долго?)

Общий порядок формирования любого члена предложения

слово - - - словосочетание - - - придаточное предложение

Используется как при анализе русского предложения, так и при его составлении. Независимо от вида высказываемого (приведено выше) порядок слов любого предложения остаётся неизменным. В силу большей самостоятельности русских слов члены русского предложения могут быть расположены произвольно, поэтому, проанализировав русское предложение путём постановки вопросов (на которые отвечает каждый член предложения) буквально с первого слова рассматриваемого предложения и определив все составляющие с учётом ‘Общего порядка формирования любого члена предложения’, перед переводом на английский язык в обязательном порядке расположить члены искомого предложения как указано выше (порядок слов английского предложения).

ВВОДНЫЕ СЛОВА

1. Различная степень уверенности

а) большая степень уверенности

конечноразумеется – of course / kOs / - ‘of course’

бесспорно – It’s sure / SuW /- ‘It’s sure’

несомненно – doubtless / dUutlis / - ‘doubtless’

безсомнения - without / wi"DUut / doubt; beyond / bi"jOnd / doubt – ‘without doubt; beyond doubt’

безусловно – ‘of / Wv / course / kOs /; there is no doubt’

действительно – really / ÛriWli /, indeed / in"did / - ‘really, indeed’

б) меньшая степень уверенности предположение

кажется - It seems / si:mz / that / Dét / - ‘It seems that’

вероятно - probably / prObWbli / - ‘probably’

очевидно - obviously / 'ObviWsli /; apparently / W'pérWntli /; manifestly / ménifestli /; evidently /evidWntli / - ‘obviously; apparently; manifestly; evidently’

возможно - possibly / pOsWbli /; perhaps / pW 'héps / - ‘possibly; perhaps’

пожалуй - may(+inf.); I think / QiNk / that / Dét / - ‘may(+inf.); I think that’

2. Различные чувства

к счастью - fortunately / fOtSnitli /; luckily / lUkili /; as luck / lUk / would / wud / have / hév / it – ‘fortunately; luckily; as luck would have it’

к общейрадости – to / tW / everyone’s / evriwUnz / joy / dJOi / - ‘to everyone’s joy’

к несчастью, к сожалению - unfortunately / UnÛfO:tSnitli / - ‘unfortunately’

к удивлению - to / tW / one’s / wUnz / surprise / sWÛpraiz / - ‘to one’s surprise’

3. Источник сообщения (кому принадлежит сообщение)

по сообщениюкого-либо - according / W' kOdiN / to / tW / somebody’s / sUmbOdiz / report / ri' pOt / - ‘according to somebody’s report’

по словамкого-либо - according to somebody’s words / wWdz / - ‘according to somebody’s words’

по мнениюкого-либо - according to somebody’s opinion / W'pinjWn /- ‘according to somebody’s opinion’

4. Порядок мыслей и их связь

во-первых - at / ét / first / fWst / - ‘at first’

во-вторых - at / ét / second / sekWnd / - ‘at second’

в-третьих – at / ét / third / QWd / - ‘at third’

наконец – at / ét / last / lAst / - ‘at last’

следовательно - therefore / DEW'fO /; consequently / 'kOnsikwWntli /; hence / hens / - ‘therefore; consequently; hence’

значит - so / sWu /; well, well then / Den / - ‘so; well, well then’

итак – so / sWu /; thus / DUs / - ‘so; thus’

напротив, наоборот - on the / DW / contrary / kOntrWri / - ‘on the contrary’

и наоборот (в конце предложения) - and / énd / vice versa / vaisi'vWsW / - ‘and vice versa’

например - for / fO:(r) / example / ig'zAmpl / - ‘for example’

так – so / sWu /; thus / DUs / - ‘so; thus’

5. Замечания о способах оформления мыслей

однимсловом - in / in / a word / wWd / - ‘in a word’

иначеговоря - in / in / other / UDW / words / wWdz / - ‘in other words’

лучшесказать - better / betW / to say / sei / - ‘better to say’

ВВОДНЫЕ ВОПРОСИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СЛОВА

думать – to / tu / think / QiNk / - ‘to think’

полагать – to / tu / suppose / sW

Библиографическая ссылка

Ибрагимов Г.Х. Санкт-Петербург Comparative Grammar Method as a way of Foreign Languages mastering after the example of Russian and English // Научный электронный архив.
URL: http://econf.rae.ru/article/5400 (дата обращения: 22.10.2019).



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